An experiment was conducted on Chromolaena odorata dominated grassland to determine the efficacy of integrated mechanical and chemical control on regrowth of Chromolaena odorata and other weeds and to determine their botanical composition at 30, 60 and 90 days after treatment application. Treatments were spraying of glyphosate (Roundup) onslashed Chromolaena odorata, spraying of glyphosate on normal Chomolaena odorata, spraying of triclopyr (Garlon 4) on slashed Chromolaena odorata and spraying of triclopyr on normal Chromolaena odorata. Efficacy was assessed on the basis of dry weight of weeds yielded at 30, 60and 90 days after herbicide applications. Both herbicides were more effective when sprayed on normal than on slashed Chrmolaena odorata. Regardless of slashing, triclopyr was more effective than glyphosate in suppressing weeds. In glyphosate sprayed plots, Chromolaena odorata and other weeds were the dominant plants, whereas in triclopyr sprayed plots, herbage was the dominant plant, however dominance of Chromolaena odorata progressively increased over time. The results suggest that the interval between slashing and spraying of herbicides is an important factor to determine the efficacy of integrating slashing and herbicide to control Chromolaena odorata.
Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the yielding reliability of serradella, field pea and yellow lupine, sown as stubble catch crop in August on a typical Alfisol.
Study Design: The randomized complete block design with four replications.
Place and Duration of Study: Field study was conducted in 2005–2009, at the Research Station in Mochełek near Bydgoszcz (17⁰51′ E; 53⁰13′ N) in Midwest Poland.
Methodology: The objects of the study were three leguminous plants: Serradella 'Igela', field pea 'Grapis' and yellow lupine 'Legat', grown as stubble catch crop on Alfisols formed of a sandy loam. The main studied features were yield of green matter and post harvest residues of plants. Moreover yield reliability in years for particular plants were calculated.
Results: The total yield of dry biomass of plants grown as stubble catch crop ranged from 1.76 Mg∙ha-1 in 2005, with shortage of rainfall, to 3.65 Mg∙ha-1 in 2006, which was characterized by a high rainfall in August and high temperatures in September. The total dry matter yield of field pea and yellow lupine was significantly higher than from serradella. The highest aboveground dry matter yield was obtained from pea, and the lowest from serradella. Proportion of post-harvest residues in the total dry weight yield usually amounted to 30-40%. Yellow lupine produced a significantly higher average from 5 years yield of post-harvest residues than field pea and serradella.
Conclusion: Serradella, field pea and yellow lupine sown as stubble catch crop within 3-12 August are characterized by a high reliability of dry matter yield, from approximately 80.5% (yellow lupine) to 83.8% (field pea). Serradella matched the other plants in terms of the yield reliability, but the yield of green mass of the plants was significantly lower than that of pea and lupine.
The study was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the influence of pelleted and unpelleted composted organic waste materials on the morphological growth, dry matter accumulation and yield of three varieties of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The experiment was a 3 × 13 factorial trial in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The trial consisted of one hundred and seventeen polythene pots laid out in the greenhouse of the Teaching and Research Farm of Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The treatments were pelleted and unpelleted composted rice husks (100%), moringa pod husks (100%), maize cobs (100%), rice husks + poultry manure (75%:25%, volume to volume; v/v), moringa pod husks + poultry manure (75%:25%,v/v), maize cobs + poultry manure (75%:25%,v/v), control and three varieties of cucumber (Poinsett, Marketer and Supermarketer) giving a total of thirty-nine treatment combinations. Cucumber plants grown in soil amended with unpelleted composted rice husks + poultry (75%:25%, v/v) had significantly (P = .05) the highest values of plant height, leaf area per plant, number of leaves per plant, stem girth, dry matter accumulation in the leaves and stems while those grown in the pelleted rice husks + poultry manure significantly (P = .05) gave the highest values of dry matter accumulation in the roots of the three cucumber varieties after six weeks of planting (the peak of vegetative growth). The unpelleted rice husks + poultry manure significantly (P = .05) also gave the highest values of number of fruits and fruit weight per plant. Supermarketer gave the highest values of the morphological growth traits, dry matter accumulation and yield in all the treatments followed by Marketer, then Poinsett.
Research has evaluated the contribution of minerals through soil and foliar fertilization on winter wheat yield, the purpose being to identify the interdependence relations for the optimization of the fertilization system. Two types of mineral and foliar fertilizers were tested. The complex mineral fertilizer of the type NPK (1:1:1) was used for achieving three differentiated nutrition levels: NPK0, NPK30 (30 kg active substance ha-1) and NPK60 (60 kg active substance ha-1). There are five types of foliar fertilizers applied and 18 experimental variants were studied. The research was conducted in Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (SSPN) and Mathematics and Statistics (MS), Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine„ Regele Mihai I al României„ from Timisoara, Romania (USAMVBT), between 2011 and 2012. The influence of interaction between the two types of fertilizer compared to their individual influence on wheat production was analyzed. Based on regression analysis were obtained mathematical model of interdependence, reliability of the results and models have been certified by LSD, p and R2 (maximum value is better). The complex fertilizers generated yield increase between 925*** and 1425*** kg ha-1. The foliar fertilizers determined yield increase between 355 and 810*** kg ha-1 with natural soil fertility (NPK0), between 550** and 900*** kg ha-1 with NPK30, and between 500** and 795*** kg ha-1 with NPK60. The yield increase determined by the joint effect of the two types of fertilization was between 1475*** and 2220*** kg ha-1. The experimental results have high statistical confidence (p<.01; Fcrit<F for Alfa = .01). The study recorded a decrease in the potentiation effect of the foliar fertilizers and at the same time in their contribution to the winter wheat yield, when the doses of complex fertilizers applied on the soil were increased.
The effect of integrating Albizia zygia and NPK 15-15-15 on soil fertility and maize yield were studied to investigate the effect of Albizia zygia and NPK 15-15-15 on soil properties, growth and yield of maize. The experiment was laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five treatments and three replicates. The experiment was conducted from 2009 to 2011 at the Teaching and Research Farm, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Nigeria. The treatments were: control (no treatment), Abizia zygia at 5 tons/ha, Albizia zygia + NPK 15-15-15 at 2.5 tons/ha and 125kg/ha respectively, NPK 15-15-15 at 250kg/ha and 0PK at 250 kg/ha of single superphosphate (SSP) and 90 kg/ha of muriate of potash (KCl). Soil was sampled before planting for determination of soil nitrogen conten, phosphorous, potassium, organic matter, soil pH, total soil porosity, Water holding capacity and soil bulk density were determined. Maize yield was determined at end of growing seasons as well as profitability of the treatments were also evaluated. Soil physical properties such as total porosity, water holding capacity, soil organic matter, total exchangeable bases, cations exchange capacity and soil pH were significantly improved by applying Albizia zygia biomass. Maize yields (1.33, 1.93 and 1.33 ton/ha in 2009, 2010 and 2011 planting seasons) were found to have increased significantly in the plot treated with Albizia + NPK 15-15-15 over other treatments. In the same vein, the same treatment (Albizia + NPK 15-15-15) was found to have returned more money (N37, 459 and N76,204 in 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons respectively) to the farmer over other treatments.
The study was undertaken to identify the effect of organic manures (OMs) on the productivity, shelf-life, and economic efficiency of tomato varieties for minimizing the continuous application of chemical fertilizers in Bangladesh. The experiment was conducted during the dry season from October 2012 to March 2013 in an experimental field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The experiment was laid out with completely randomized design with 3 replications. Three tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 14, and BARI Tomato 2) were grown in plots with different treatment viz. cow dung (CD), poultry manure (PM), and vermicompost (VC) containing 170 kg ha-1 of N2, and the results were compared with non-fertilized plots (control). The harvested fruits were kept at an ambient temperature without bagging, kept at an ambient temperature in a polyethylene bag, or kept at 10⁰C in a polyethylene bag, and the shelf-life of each fruit was monitored. Moreover, cost-effectiveness was calculated based on common tomato production practices of Bangladesh. The effect of OMs on the vegetative growth was largely depend on the cultivars. Differing from the vegetative growth, the total fruit yield significantly increased with the application of PM and VC, irrespective of the cultivar, while the single fruit weight and fruit number per plant varied largely depending on the cultivar. The shelf-life was also significantly prolonged by the application of PM and VC. On the other hand, the effect of CD on the fruit yield and shelf-life was relatively low. The results of economic analysis revealed that the benefit-cost ratio was low in CD and VC because of the low fruit yield and high cost, respectively. Among the treatment combinations, PM x BARI Tomato 15 showed the best result not only from the viewpoint of fruit yield and storability but also from that of the benefit-cost ratio, indicating the effectiveness of this combination as an alternative option for improving the continuous application of chemical fertilizers on Bangladesh soil.
In Nigeria, one of the major problems confronting agriculture is poor soil fertility replenishment strategy that could allow sustainable production. Two field trials were conducted simultaneously in Sokoto (UDUS, Vegetable Research farm) and Zamfara (Bakalori Irrigation Project) both in Sudan-Savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria, with the aim of studying the effect of different rates of cow dung, nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer and their combinations on soil properties and performance of sweet potato. The research was conducted during the 2011/2012 dry season using ten treatments: 3, 2, and 1tons per hectare of cow dung, 400, 300, and 200 kilogram per hectare of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, 2 tons of cow dung + 100 kilogram nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, 1.5 ton of cow dung + 150 kilogram of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, 1 ton of cow dung + 200 kilogram of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer per hectare and no fertilizer application (control). The result obtained was consistent with regard to locations indicating a numerical increased in soil organic carbon, cation exchange capacity(CEC), total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable calcium and potassium due to the treatments application as compared to the initial values. However, the effect was not significant (p>0.05) among treatments. While on sweet potato yield the treatments effect was significant (p<0.05) and application of 300 kilogram of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer per hectare gave the highest sweet potato yield at both locations. This research therefore, recommended that treatments used are important materials for soil nutrients replenishment and application of 300 kilogram per hectare of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is recommended for better sweet potato yield in the study areas.