Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Pesticides uses Status in the Chalan beel, Bangladesh and Present Status of Fish Biodiversity

Md. Abu Sayeed, Mostafa Ali Reza Hossain, Md. Abdul Wahab, Md. Tawheed Hasan, Mazlan Abd. Ghaffar, Simon Kumar Das, Sabuj Kanti Mazumder

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 267-289
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/14685

Aims: A study was conducted to investigate the status of agrochemicals used and its impact on aquatic biodiversity in the Chalan beel, the largest beel of Bangladesh.

Duration of Study: A period of six months from January to June 2009.

Methodology: The study was based on questionnaire survey. A semi structured and structured questionnaires were developed, pretested and adapted prior to the survey proper.

Results: The abundance of several fish species showed decreasing trend from 1982 to 2009. The average total annual fish production of the beel was 12017.57 MT having average fish production of 281.86 kg ha-1 during the study period. Crop farmers applied 2.76 kg pesticide ha-1 crop-1 and average annual chemical fertilizers practiced was more than 125000 MT. A total of 108 and 143 large to minor scale fish mass mortality incidences were recorded with estimated fish damage of 2117 and 2980 kg respectively during the study period.

Conclusion: It is the obligation of concerned GOs, NGOs and the people of Bangladesh to control the gear efficiency in the Chalan beel, stop the illegal usage of harmful pesticides and provide alternative livelihood options to the resource-poor fishers of the beel along with other measures for sustainability of the Chalan beel - a major fish reservoir of the country. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Resource-Use-Efficiency among Smallholder Groundnut Farmers in Northern Region, Ghana

Gideon Danso-Abbeam, Abubakari M. Dahamani, Gbanha A-S Bawa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 290-304
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/14924

The study analyses the efficiency of resource use by collecting cross-sectional data from 120 groundnut farmers in the Tolon district of the Northern region, Ghana, during 2013 major cropping season. It focuses on identifying the determinants of groundnut output growth, measuring the technical efficiency level of the farmers as well as how efficient farmers are with respect to the allocation of their inputs. The stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) was employed to examine the determinants of output and measure the technical efficiency level of farmers while the marginal value product marginal factor cost (MVP-MFC) approach was used to ascertain whether farmers are efficiently allocating their resources or not. The results from the stochastic frontier analysis indicated that labour and quantity of seeds exerted significant and positive effects on groundnut output whilst the area of land allocated to groundnut cultivation had negative and significant effect on groundnut output. Groundnut farmers in the study area had a mean technical efficiency score of about 84% indicating an output loss of 16% due to inefficiency. Various sources of efficiency include; education, farming experience, household size, membership of farmer-base-organization and farmers contact with extension personnel. Allocatively, farmers were over-utilizing labour and seeds sown while under-utilizing quantities of herbicides. The study therefore recommends that an effective farm level training programmes for rural farmers through an effective extension services could increase farmer’s efficiency level and hence increase their profit level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Manure on Sweet Pepper Performance in Two Ecological Zones of Nigeria

Fabiyi Esther Funsho, Ademiluyi Benson Oluwafemi, Abiodun Joseph

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 305-309
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/14920

Organic (poultry manure) and inorganic (Urea) fertilizers were comparatively studied with the aim of improving the performance of sweet pepper, Capsicum annum (called ‘Tatase’ in Nigeria) in two ecological zones of Nigeria (Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state and Omu-Aran, Kwara State). Poultry manure applied at the rate of 8ton ha-1 gave higher fruit yield than urea at the rate of 0.2ton ha-1 twice equally at two weeks after transplanting (WAT) and at fruiting. Although higher leaf number and branches were produced in the plots that received inorganic fertilizer, the yield produced was lower.

It is indicative from this study that pepper can be successfully produced organically using poultry manure in the two ecological zones under study. It also suggests that our soils can be protected from the level of acidity associated with synthetic fertilizer use. Pepper fruits produced from such will be purely organic and safer for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Nutritional Value of Egg Yolk and Egg Albumin from Domestic Chicken, Guinea Fowl and Hybrid Chicken

L. Bashir, P. C. Ossai, O. K. Shittu, A. N. Abubakar, T. Caleb

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 310-316
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/15068

The present study was conducted to compare the nutritional and physical quality of egg yolk and egg white of birds from three different genotypes (domestic chicken, hybrid chicken and guinea fowl). The egg yolk and white from each of the bird were separated and analyzed for proximate, vitamins and minerals using standard analytical methods. The eggs of the 3 bird species showed similar conical shape, however, weight of whole egg, egg white and yolk of hybrid chicken was much higher than that of domestic and guinea fowl. The moisture (60.45+0.14%) and vitamin C (121.50+0.14mg/100g) contents of egg yolk were significantly higher in hybrid chicken than in domestic chicken and guinea fowl while the protein (5.47+0.88%), ash (1.32+0.03%) and vitamin C (68.50+0.70mg/100g) contents of egg white was higher in hybrid chicken than domestic chicken and guinea fowl. However, moisture contents (87.45+0.71%) of egg white from guinea fowl was significantly (p<0.05) higher than hybrid chicken. All elements considered in this study had higher concentrations (mg/100g) in egg yolk than white except for Na whose concentrations were higher in egg white than yolk. The concentration of K+ (321.50+7.62 and 119.50+2.6.2), Fe2+ (12.45+0.09 and 4.45+0.0.8) and Ca2+ (26.60+0.63 and 9.23+0.22) for egg yolk and white respectively was significantly (p<0.05) higher in guinea fowl than domestic and hybrid chicken. However, Na contents in hybrid chicken (850.00+22.40 and 975.00+09.00) for egg yolk and white respectively was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of guinea fowl and domestic chicken. It is concluded that egg yolk and white of hybrid chicken were riches in moisture, protein, ash, vitamin C and sodium than guinea fowl and domestic chicken. While egg yolk and white of guinea fowl were rich in K+, Fe2+ and Ca2+ than the eggs of domestic and hybrid chicken.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Dicalcium Phosphate and Different Bone Meals as Dietary Phosphorus Supplement in the Diets of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

I. A. Adebayo, G. H. Akinwumi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 317-325
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/9118

Phosphorus is most limiting mineral in the diet of fish and must be supplied in the right quality and quantity to prevent its deficiency or toxicity in fish. A 70 day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the utilization of Dicalcium phosphate and different bone meals as phosphorus supplement in the diets of Clarias gariepinusfingerlings. At the start of the experiment, ten glass aquaria of size 70cm x 45 cm x 40 cm/each, filled with Well water up to 70L of its volume were stocked with one hundred (100) fingerlings (mean weight 6.00±0.02) g/one at 20 fish per treatment replicated twice using a complete randomized design. Five experimental diets (D1-D5) were formulated to be isocaloric (11.1kcal/kg) and isonitrogeneous (40%Crude Protein). D1(control) was without Phosphorus (P) supplementation and P (0.44%) deficient, while D2-D5 were supplemented with Dicalcium phosphate (DCP), Chicken bone meal (CHBM), Clarias bone meal (CLBM) and Cattle bone meal (CABM) at 1.46%, 1.43%, 1.46% and 1.54% respectively based on the available P in each supplement to give 0.8% available P in the diets. The results showed that fish fed with D3 (CHBM) was significantly (pË‚0.05) had the best growth performance in terms of Final Mean Weight Gain (FMWG) 14.40±0.14 g; Specific Growth Rate (SGR) 1.75±0.05 and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) 1.15±0.01. Phosphorus in the carcass of fish after the experiment was significantly (pË‚0.05) highest in D5 (26.05±0.21)mg/g and least in fish fed D1 (12.98±0.20) mg/g. The feeding trial established the necessity for phosphorus supplementation in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings for better growth and body mineralization.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Demographic Characteristics of Women Involvement on the Improved Methods of Groundnut Processing in Three (3) Local Government Areas of Niger State, Nigeria

U. Mohammed, R. S. Olaleye

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 326-332
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/10957

There is gender division of women in farm labour in Niger State. The gender division of women in farm labour assigns women more works in the processing of groundnut as Agricultural food products and yet, women have no access to improved methods of groundnut processing and depend mainly on the traditional methods the purpose of this study therefore were to determine the demographic characteristics of women involvement on the improved methods of groundnut processing in there (3) Local Government Areas of Niger State. Two specific objectives that guided the study are. 1. Examine the demographic characteristics of women involvement on the improved methods of groundnut processing in the study areas.
Identify the constraints faced by women processors in the study area.
A multi-stage sampling procedure were employed in the selection of the respondents. The first state was purposive selection of Agricultural zone one of the State AMDA because of the high concentration of the respondents in the zone. This was followed by random selection of there (3) Local Government Areas (LGAs) from the zone which is equivalent to three AMDA Extension blocks. The third stage was random selection of four (4) extension cells from each of the Extension blocks, from an existing list of registered women groundnut processors Association (314) with sate AMDA, a total population samples size of 180 respondents was randomly selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data pertinent to the study with the help of Enumerators. Data were descriptively analyzed. Demographically, majority of the respondents were between the age distribution of 21-50 years and married, majority of the respondents in the study area had their household size of between 6-10 people. About 50% of the respondents had no access to formal education and 57% had 1-6 years in schooling. The result also revealed that about 32% of the respondents had 15-20 years of groundnut processing experience and about 55% of the respondents had their major occupation has full time processor. The recommendation made include need for the government and interested non government organization (NGOs) to provide credit facilities for respondents to enable them involved into improved methods of groundnut processing technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Access to Credit by Agribusiness Operators in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

Stephen Opoku–Mensah, Hayford Agbekpornu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 333-346
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/12477

Aim: The study was conducted to analyze the factors that influence access to credit by Agribusiness operators in the Kumasi Metropolis of the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

Study Design: The study used a multi-stage sampling technique to select 151 SME operators engaged in the agribusiness sector. Well structured, mostly closed ended questionnaires were used to collect cross sectional data from the respondents.

Location and Place of Study: The study was conducted in the Kumasi Metropolis, which is the capital of Ghana’s second largest city with a population of about 2 million people and has a relatively large agribusiness sector, especially in the informal sector.

Methodology: Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to analyze data. The Logit model was employed as the statistical tool to quantitatively analyze the factors that influenced access to credit by the agribusiness operators in the study area.

Results and Discussion: The empirical results showed that the factors that significantly influenced credit accessibility for respondents in the study area were the credit management skills, borrowing experience, possession of collateral security, firm size, extra income earned by operators and membership of business organization. The major constraining factors faced by respondents in their credit application from the formal sector include high interest rate, inadequate loan amount and unfavorable loan terms.  

Conclusion and Recommendation: Agri-SME operators should be encouraged to form or join business organizations and also strengthen such associations for enhanced networking leverage. Agri–SME operators should be encouraged to build on their credit management skill by engaging more with financial institutions and strengthening relationship as a means of enhancing credit access. Financial institutions, especially the Rural and Community Banks and Savings and Loans Companies, should strive to offer more competitive terms and conditions, especially interest rates to Agri-SMEs that apply for credit as a group.