Three different varieties of tomatoes, Alawusa (TX1), a local variety with four lobes (TX2) and another local variety with two lobes (TX3) were sliced and dried in an oven at 55ºC for a period of four hours. The dried samples were packaged in polythene bags labeled TX1, TX2 and TX3. Proximate composition, titratable acidity and pH were monitored initially and fortnightly. The results revealed that there were no significant differences among treatments (P = 0.05) in all the parameters determined during the course of storage. The following ranges were observed among treatments in the proximate composition within the storage period: crude protein, 9.65- 16.85%; crude fiber, 14.43- 19.63%; ether extract, 0.11-3.33%; ash, 7.45-10.47% and nitrogen free extract (NFE), 58.58-65.23. Protein values were found to be decreasing during the course of storage in all treatments, whereas no definite trends were observed for pH and titratable acidity.
Fry management in aerated, none aerated aquarium and hapa system were determined in Fish Hatchery of Faculty of Agriculture, Shabu Lafia, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria to assess condition factor, percentage survival rate, increase in total body length and percentage weight gain. Two hundred hatchlings each of Clarias gariepinus were put into12.6 litres of water of 35 x 30 x 15 cm aquarium (with aerator and without aerator) and those of hapas (35 x 30 x 15 cm dimensions) were placed each in 1000 litres of water (aerated and none aerated) in 3 replicates. The fry were fed at 5% of their body weight with Artemia shell free as fry conventional food. The feeding was done four times daily at ¼ part of the 5% body weight for the period of sixteen days. Temperature (27.45±0.05ºC), pH (7.56±0.03); dissolved oxygen (8.20±0.03 mg/L), total alkalinity (15.36±0.03 mg/L) and free carbon dioxide (4.30±0.03 mg/L) monitored in the various treatments were not significantly different from each other. The Percentage weight gain (1117 and 1067), percentage survival rate (92.83 and 91.33), increase in total body length (1.07 and 1.07cm) and condition factor (11.99 and 11.44) of the fry in hapa system (aerated and none aerated respectively) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of aquaria treatments. The results of aerated and none aerated hapa treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05) from each other. The use of hapa as improved system for mass production of C. gariepinus fry is highly recommendable in the large body of water.
Aims: Endometritis is a major postpartum disease that affects dairy cattle productivity which is accompanied by heavy economic losses to the farmer. The status of Clinical endometritis (CE) and Sub-Clinical Endometritis (SCE) in sub-Saharan Africa is poorly understood, thus the study was carried out to provide information on the prevalence and associated risk factors that are responsible for the occurrence of SCE and CE in dairy cattle of Central Uganda. Study Design: This was a prospective study involving 140 dairy cattle within 60 days postpartum from 35 commercial dairy farms in Central Uganda. The dairy herds were visited in both the dry (n=90) and wet season (n=50) and subsequent visits were conducted after 3 months and 5 months to collect data for reproductive performance Methodology: A metricheck® device was used to collect the cervico-vaginal discharge which was examined for color, odor, texture, and measurement of its pH during the postpartum period for diagnosis of endometritis. Further examination of the reproductive tract was carried out using a vaginal speculum and subsequently rectal palpations were performed. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of CE and SCE in the Central Uganda and assess the risk factors involved. Results: In this study, the prevalence of CE and SCE was established at 3.6% and 18.6% respectively, this burden was slightly higher in the wet than in the dry season but with no statistical significance P=0.126. Dairy cattle that had calved more than three times were shown to be associated with a higher body appearance (BCS > 3) than those that had calved down fewer times. Dystocia, Retained After Birth and Abortion were identified as associated risk factors (P = 0.00) to SCE and CE whereas infertility and Prolonged days calving to conception (>90 d) were postpartum implications (P=0.00) associated with SCE and CE in this study. This would be attributed to the poor management of postpartum dairy cattle in the farms visited as no farm was found with a maternity pen. SCE caused infertility in 65.5% of the dairy cattle whereas the CE is a major influencing factor to long calving to first AI and calving to conception interval (306d±90.6), On basis of reproduction, there was no major difference towards use of AI or Natural service. Conclusion: Management of endometritis in the region should address pre-partum and postpartum dairy herd management through improved extension service delivery and technical farm support to construct maternity pens, Endometritis is a multifactorial disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach to boost nutrition and health thus reducing incidence of risk factors such as dystocia and Retained fetal birth) .subsequent studies should be carried out to explore the national burden of SCE and ascertain the cause of the abortion.
The study was conducted to assess The effect of charcoal and honey on the zoo technical performance and gut morphometry of broiler birds fed naturally aflatoxins contaminated maize based diets in a comparative study was carried out. In a completely randomised design, 240 one-week old Arbor Acre broilers were distributed randomly to six dietary treatments with four replicates of ten birds per replicate. The treatments were as follows: T1= Normal diets (diet formulated with normal maize) (positive control, with 15 ppb AF); T2= Rejected maize diets (negative control, with 32 ppb AF); T3=Positive control plus 2% charcoal; T4=Rejected maize diets plus 2% charcoal; T5=Positive control plus 2% honey; T6=Rejected maize diet plus 2% honey. Feeding and provision of water were supplied ad-libitum. On the 42th day, nine birds per treatments were slaughtered for gut morphometric attributes (villus height, crypt depth, villus width and villus height to crypt depth ratio) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum part of the gut. The zoo technical performance of broiler in the experiment were not significantly different (P<0.05) from all the treatments despite having different feed conversion ratio. Results from the gut morphology showed that the least villus height of birds from duodenum was recorded on AFL (180 x 102 mm) an indication of effect of aflatoxin. On the ileum, AFL (138 x 102 mm), CTL-Ho (118 x 102 mm) and AFL-Ho (116 x 102 mm) of villus height of birds were not significantly (P<0.05) different from each other. However, the histopathology of liver, kidney and bursa of fabricius showed healing power of honey as no visual lesions was seen on the slides of the organs prepared. In conclusion, 2% charcoal–to-aflatoxins-contaminated feed was more effective than 2% honey.
A field experiment was conducted in loamy sand soil during kharif season of 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the temperature use efficiency and yield of groundnut varieties in response sowing dates and fertility levels. The treatments consisted of four sowing dates (20 April, 15 May, 9 June and 4 July) and two varieties of groundnut (HNG 10 and TG 37A) as main-plot treatments and four fertility levels of nitrogen and phosphorus application (0, 20 N-40 P2O5, 30-60 P2O5 and 40 N-80 P2O5 kg ha-1 ) as sub-plot making a total of 32 treatment combinations. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications and crop growth rate, yield parameters, harvest index and temperature use efficiency were recorded on crop. The results showed that significantly higher crop growth rate (CGR) at 30-60 and 60-90 days after sowing (DAS) was observed in HNG 10 variety. Further delays in sowing from 9 June significantly reduce crop growth rate. However, the growth rate of TG 37A variety was observed to be statistically at par among the sowing dates. In HNG 10 variety higher pod yield (3773, 3743 and 3738 kg ha-1), kernel, haulm and biological yield were observed at par to each other from 20 April to 9 June sowing, respectively. Maximum heat unit efficiency (3.23 kg ha-1 degree- day-1) was observed on 9 June sowing date while the highest yield (2628 kg ha-1) was recorded in TG 37A variety with 4 July sowing. Harvest index in both the varieties was observed to be significantly higher in 4 July sowing date. All the fertility treatments produced significantly higher crop growth rate and yields than the treatments receiving no fertilizer application. Application of 30 kg N-60 kg P2O5 ha-1 significantly enhanced the crop growth and yield over 20 kg N-40 kg P2O5 ha-1 and control but at par with 40 kg N-80 kg P2O5 ha-1 . However, the crop uses maximum temperature in the month of June for better growth and yield. Thus, it could be concluded that the suitable sowing date of HNG 10 and TG 37A varieties in western dry zone of India are around 9 June and 4 July respectively. Application of 30 kg N-60 kg P2O5 ha-1 was optimum for growth and yield of the crop.
This study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka to determine the effects of different sowing media on emergence and growth of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) seedlings in the nursery. The moringa seeds used for the study were collected from different parts of Nigeria; Nsukka (Eastern Nigeria), Ibadan (Western Nigeria) and Jos (Northern Nigeria). The sowing media were weathered sawdust (100%), top soil (100%), weathered sawdust plus cured poultry manure in the ratio of 2:1(volume by volume; v/v), and top soil plus cured poultry manure plus river sand in the ratio of 3:2:1(v/v/v). Perforated black polythene bags were used as potting media. The experiment was a 3 x 4 factorial trial in completely randomized design with three replications. The seeds sown in the 100% topsoil took average of 8.2 and 9.0 days to have first and 50% seedling emergence. Weathered sawdust medium gave the highest mean percentage seedling emergence (84%) followed by the sawdust plus cured poultry manure (82%). The topsoil (control), 100% sawdust and weathered sawdust plus cured poultry manure had similar coefficient velocity of seedling emergence (11%). The topsoil medium (control) had the highest values of plant height and stem girth while sawdust plus poultry manure gave the highest number of leaves in the seedlings. There were no significant differences (P = .05) in the morphological traits of the seedlings in the different sowing media. The three accessions of Moringa oleifera also had no significant differences (P = .05) in their morphological growth . Sawdust and sawdust plus poultry manure encouraged early seedling emergence in moringa and sustained their growth in the nursery for four weeks. The media can, therefore, be used as good substitutes for topsoil in nursery establishment of crops with short nursery lives.
A study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as part of feed ingredient on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and economic efficiency of weaner pigs. A total of forty-five (45) weaner pigs of mixed sexes of age 7-8 weeks old were allocated to five dietary treatments and nine replicates in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were: diet 1 designated as 0% MOLM had no moringa in the diet and was the control, diets 2, 3, 4, and 5 designated as 1% MOLM, 2.5% MOLM, 3.5% MOLM and 5% MOLM contained moringa leaf meal at 1%, 2.5%, 3.5% and 5% respectively. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance with the aid of SAS (2008). The results obtained showed that feed intake and final body weight were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by MOLM. The growth rate of pigs on 5% MOLM (0.54 kg/pig) was better (p<0.05) than those on the control and 2.5% MOLM diets and this reflected in the best feed conversion efficiency (0.3) for the pigs on 5% MOLM. Carcass parameters including slaughter weight, organ weight, carcass length, loin eye muscle area, ham and primal cuts of pork were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by MOLM. Back fat thickness reduced (p<0.05) from 2.2 cm in the control to 1.7 cm as moringa inclusion increased to 5%. There were no differences in crude protein levels of the meat (20.2% to 24.6%), moisture content (69.1% to 71.3%), and the pH of the meat (5.3 to 6.0). The feed cost decreased as the level of MOLM inclusion in the dietary treatments increased from 0% MOLM to 5% MOLM. It was therefore concluded that MOLM could be used as a feed ingredient in the diet of pigs to reduce production cost. MOLM had no detrimental effect on the meat of pigs, and has the potential to reduce fat level in pork to produce leaner carcass.