The study examined the contribution of the Cocoa Disease and Pest Control Programme (CODAPEC), which is a cocoa production-enhancing government policy, to reducing poverty and raising the living standards of cocoa farmers in Ghana. One hundred and fifty (150) cocoa farmers were randomly selected from five communities in the Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai district of the Western Region of Ghana and interviewed using structured questionnaires. Just over half of the farmers (53%) perceived the CODAPEC programme as being effective in controlling pests and diseases, whilst 56.6% felt that their yields and hence livelihoods had improved. In some cases pesticides or fungicides were applied later in the season than recommended and this had a detrimental effect on yields. To determine the level of poverty amongst farmers, annual household consumption expenditure was used as a proxy indicator. The study found that 4.7% of cocoa farmers were extremely poor having a total annual household consumption expenditure of less than GH¢ 623.10 ($310.00) while 8.0% were poor with less than GH¢ 801.62 ($398.81). An amount of money ranging from GH¢ 20.00 ($9.95) to GH¢ 89.04 ($44.29) per annum was needed to lift the 4.7% of cocoa farmers out of extreme poverty, which could be achieved through modest increases in productivity. The study highlighted how agricultural intervention programmes, such as CODAPEC, have the potential to contribute to improved farmer livelihoods.
The chief economic activity of Guyana is agriculture. In the agricultural industries, the use of fertilizers for crop cultivation has been in common practice and has affected the crop quality over the years. The use of fertilizers accounts for about 75% of crop cultivation and quantity has basically become the major concern rather than quality. The present research carried out during 2012-13, indicated that chemical fertilizers improve quantity but not quality while organic fertilizers maintain both quantity and good quality of crops. The physico-chemical analysis of vermiwash showed the necessary elements for plant growth are present in sufficient quantity. T8 (neem + rice straw + cattle dung) followed by T9 (neem+ rice straw+ bagasse+ cattle dung) and H (chemical treatment) were the most effective treatments in hydroponics compared to C (distilled water) and T1(cattle dung) that were minimally effective. This is substantiated by 2-factor ANOVA, LSD and composite index. Plants grown using different vermiwash in comparison to hydroponically grown showed less moisture, better shoot and root growth, number of leaves, nodes and resistance to insect damage.
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is a major constraint to cassava production in Uganda. The disease is caused by two ipomovirus species: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), both transmitted by the whitefly vector (Bemisia tabaci). Since the outbreak of the CBSD epidemic in Uganda in 2004, knowledge of its spread in the field is still limited. In this study, five cassava genotypes with varying levels of resistance to CBSD: TME 204 (susceptible), I92/0067, MH 97/2961, MH 96/0686 (moderately tolerant) and NASE 3 (tolerant) were used to evaluate the effect of genotype and prevailing disease pressure on CBSD spread in Uganda. The experiment was established in a randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three sites of varying CBSD disease pressure: high (Wakiso), moderate (Kamuli) and low (Lira) in November, 2009 to November, 2010. Disease incidences (%), apparent infection rate (r), area under disease progress curves (AUDPC) were determined and population of the whitefly vector monitored monthly for 8 months. Genotype and disease pressure significantly affected CBSD incidence (P = .001), with Lira recording no noticeable disease spread even in the susceptible genotype TME 204. On the contrary, in Wakiso and Kamuli final disease incidence was maximum (100%) in the genotypes I92/0067, TME 204 and MH 97/2961 while the tolerant genotype NASE 3 had low final disease incidence of ≤ 5%. Mean whitefly population varied with site (P = .001) and there was a positive interaction between whitefly population and disease pressure hence the rapid CBSD spread in Kamuli and Wakiso. There was a high correlation (r = .994) between foliar and root CBSD incidence hence high CBSD root incidence in Kamuli and Wakiso. From these results, it is evident that high disease pressure, use of susceptible genotypes and high whitefly population significantly enhanced CBSD spread and development.
Aims: Genetic variability and heritability for agronomic traits are key component in broadening the gene pool and as selection criteria in any rice breeding programs. In present study I estimated genetic variation and heritability of traits, examined relationships among traits and their effects on grain yield under water stressed and non-stressed conditions and distinguished cultivars that are drought tolerance, high yield potential and those that combined both high yield potential and drought tolerance. Study Design: Field experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design. Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried in field research center Hainan of the Institute of Crop Science Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences China PR. from 2012-2014. Methodology: Two parents Minghui 63 and 02428 were crossed to develop 717 lines. Based on spikelet fertility ≥ 50,140 lines were selected for present study. Under drought stress field was drained at panicle initiation stage and maintained dry until maturity. In irrigation water was applied whenever necessary until maturity. At maturity, ANOVA, Dunnetts’ t tests, correlation and path analysis were performed for 24 traits. Results: Correlation coefficient of trait performances between water regimes was positive and ranged between 0.3 to 0.9. Drought tolerance, yield potential and both drought tolerance and yield potential lines were distinguished. Trait genetic variation, heritability and their contribution to the final grain yield varied over genetic background, water regimes and year. Heritability in japonica type was higher under irrigation compared to drought stress. In indica background heritability was higher under drought stress in 2013, and varied in 2014. Lower values of residue effects were recorded for japonica type compared to indica background and under drought stress compared to irrigation. High filled grain number, high 1000-grain weight, moderate tiller number, short flowering time and high plant height could be selection criteria for breeding high grain yield under drought conditions. While high spikelet number coupled with high spikelet fertility, high tiller number, long panicle length, moderate plant height, and moderate flowering time are necessary for breeding high yield potential. Conclusion: These results provide a platform for dissecting genes for high yield potential, genes for drought tolerance and genes for both yield potential and high drought tolerance.
Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal following the written request of the author by email (dated: 4th June-2015). This retraction is a result of unauthorized publication of research data without proper approval of the supervisor, etc. Depending on the request of the author and other information, editors and publisher have retracted this paper on 10th June-2015. Related policy is available here: http://goo.gl/lI77Nn
Cashew cultivation in Ghana has been seriously hampered by high cost of production. This necessitated investigation into practices that will reduce establishment cost and improve field performance of cashew transplants. An experiment was conducted at Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana’s (CRIG) substation at Bole (9° 01' N, 2° 29' W, altitude 309 m a s l) for optimizing the size of polybag to reduce volume of top soil required for nursing seedling, ease seedling conveyance and also improve plant establishment. Cashew seeds were sown in polybags measuring 17.5 cm x 25 cm (Large), 14.0 cm x17.8 cm (medium), 12.7 cm x 17.8 cm (small) and 10.2 cm x17.8 cm (smaller) and transplanted at 6 and 8 weeks after sowing. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Data collected included percentage survival and growth of cashew transplants two years after transplanting and ease of seedling portage. The results showed that seedling survival was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the size of the polybag and age at transplanting. However bag size significantly (P < 0.001) influenced plant growth. Large polybag size produced more vigorous plants in the field. Growth of plants nursed with the medium bag sizes were also superior (P < 0.05) to the small sized bags. Seedling age did not significantly affect plant girth and height but plant leaf number was significantly (P < 0.05) affected with 8 weeks transplants producing more leaves. Seedlings in medium and small sized bags were easier to be conveyed at planting time. It is recommended that polybag sizes 14.0 cm x 17.8 cm and 12.7 cm x 17.8 cm should be used to raise cashew seedlings and transplanted at 6-weeks old to achieve higher establishment success.
The growth and yield response of sweet maize (Zea mays (L.) saccharata) to varying levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers during the growing seasons of kharif 2010 and 2011 was studied under temperate conditions of Kashmir Valley. Twelve treatments comprising of sole and combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers were laid in a randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that application of T10 [75% (NPK) + FYM (4.5 t/ha) + Biofertilizer (Azotobacter + Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB))] significantly increased the number of days taken to tasseling, silking and milky stages and various other growth characters viz., plant height, leaf area index and dry matter accumulation at 15 days interval from sowing upto harvest and crop growth rate and relative growth rate at 7 days interval from 15 DAS upto harvest whereas, the lowest values of these parameters were recorded in unfertilized control. The treatment T10[75 % (NPK) + FYM (4.5 t/ha) + Biofertilizer (Azotobacter + Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB))] proved to be significantly superior to rest of the treatments including unfertilized control in increasing cob yield with and without husk, fodder yield and green biomass yield during both years of experimentation, however, ratio of cob to fodder yield during 2011 and 2012 were recorded highest in treatment T3 [FYM (18 t ha-1)] and T2 [Recommended NPK kg ha-1 (90:60:40)], respectively, whereas unfertilized control recorded the lowest ratio of cob to fodder yield.
Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is usually infested and its yield is adversely affected by a number of weed species that compete with the crop from germination to harvest, affecting the crop yield adversely. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at Sirinka and Jari, northern Ethiopia during the 2013 main cropping season (July-October). The objectives were to assess the effect of pre-emergence s-metolachlor and pendimethalin on weeds, and growth, yield components and yield of cowpea and to investigate the possibilities of supplementing low doses of herbicides with hand weeding for effective and cost effective weed management. There were 12 treatments comprising: s-metolachlor (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1); pendimethalin (1.0, 1.3 and 1.6 kg ha-1), s-metolachlor at 1.0 kg ha-1 + hand-weeding at 5 weeks after crop emergence (WAE), pendimethalin at 1.0 kg ha-1 + handweeding at 5 WAE, one handweeding at 2 WAE, two handweeding at 2 and 5 WAE, weed free and weedy checks. The treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. 78.6% of the weeds comprised in the experimental sites were the broadleaved. At 20 DAE, application of 2.0 kg ha-1 s-metolachlor at both locations resulted in the lowest broadleaved weeds, sedge and total weed density. Pendimethalin failed to control Commelina benghalensis and Xanthium strumarium. At 55 DAE, low rate of s-metolachlor and pendimethalin when superimposed with one hand weeding were as effective as complete weed free treatment in reducing the broadleaved weeds and sedge density. The minimum weed dry weight was registered with the application 2.0 kg ha-1 of s-metolachlor in both locations; however, at 55 days and harvest, weeds accumulated significantly lower dry weight due to1.0 kg ha-1 s-metolachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 pendimethalin superimposed with hand weeding at both locations. The interaction of location with weed management practices was significant on days to 50% flowering and physiological maturity of the crop, number of pods plant-1, grain and aboveground dry biomass yield and yield loss. The maximum grain yield (4277 kg ha-1) was obtained in complete weed free treatment at Sirinka which was statistically equivalent with complete weed free and two hand weeding treatments at Jari and Sirinka experimental sites respectively. Due to weed infestation throughout the crop growth, the highest yield loss (70.8%) was recorded at Jari while it was 47.5% at Sirinka. The highest gross benefit was obtained with the application of 1.0 kg ha-1 of s-metolachlor superimposed with hand weeding followed by two hand-weeding at 2 and 5 WAE. Therefore, managing the weeds with the application of 1.0 kg ha-1 of s- metolachlor + hand weeding and hoeing 35 DAE proved to be the most profitable practice. However, under the condition of labour constraint and timely availability of the herbicide, pre emergence application of 2.0 kg ha-1 of s-metolachlor should be used to preclude the yield loss and to ensure maximum benefits.