The aim was assess the reliability of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) as appropriate index to adjust early weather warnings for the coffee sector in Colombia. The study was conducted in the National Coffee Research Center (Cenicafé), Manizales, Colombia between January 2013 and June 2014. Simple correlations between ONI and number of rainy days, at monthly scale, were done. Correlation coefficients (R) and P-values for every month and station were calculated, and twelve maps (one per each month) showing if the correlation is positive or negative and the significance were used in order to determine the ONI effect´s on rainfall at spatial and temporal scales. The results show that the effect of the ONI on the number of days with rain is differential and depends on the area being analyzed. The effect is similar in the central and southern coffee regions, whose behavior is totally different from the coffee zone of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (northern coffee zone). In the north, the ONI has a positive relation with the number of days with rain in the first half of the year, similar to the effect on the South Eastern of the U.SA. In conclusion, ONI cannot be used widely (time and space) as an index to adjust early warning systems in the coffee growth zone in Colombia.
Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of microorganisms in different types of agricultural soils. Study Design: Comparative analysis of quantity of microorganisms in a crop rotation and constant (permanent) in a dry subtropical zone in different types of soils. Methodology: Microorganisms quantity has been defined by (microorganisms total quantity meat-peptone-agaric (MPA) and starchy-ammoniac-agaric (SAA), actinomisets starchy - agaric- agaric (SAA) and microscopic fungus quantity have been defined on Chapek agaric environment on the basis of the method received in the Institute of Microbiology of Moscow. Results: The results showed that the quantity of microorganisms in a crop rotation was more, than permanent cultivation of these cultures. A mineralization of organic substances in soils under constant cultures occurred more intensively, than in a crop rotation. Conclusion: Including in a crop rotation of legume cultures (Lucerne, haricot, bean) increases quantity of microorganisms, also slows down intensity mineralization of organic substances.
A field experiment conducted in 2014 at Nsukka, Nigeria was aimed to study the effect of cutting height and poultry manure on the growth of Panicum maximum. Nine treatments were evaluated as factorial combinations of poultry manure applied at 0, 5 and 10 ton ha-1 and cutting heights of 5, 10 and 15 cm. The treatments were fitted into in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated three times. The research was conducted during the period of March to September, 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Grass cover and tiller number were significantly increased with 10 ton ha-1 poultry manure compared with the control. Dry matter content and bare ground area reduced with increased application of poultry manure. Cutting at 15 cm significantly produced taller plants than 5 cm but statistically the same with 10 cm height of cut. A combination of 10 cm cutting height and 10 ton ha-1 of poultry manure gave greater tiller population per m2than 5 cm with zero poultry manure. However application of 10 ton ha-1 of poultry manure with harvest at either 10 or 15 cm produced higher growth establishment of the grass.
The objective was to evaluate the correlation between behaviour al and intake variables of Holstein calves fed pellets and meal. Twelve pure Holstein calves with initial average age of 10 days and weight of 27.5 kg were used; The experimental design used in this study was a 2 x 2 factorial design (two types of feed and two feeding stages lactation and post-lactation periods), with six repetitions. Was found significant effects the time allocated to eating, rumination and resting. The data concerning the efficiency of feeding and rumination, total chewing time, number of ruminal boluses, rumination time/bolus and the number of chews per cud/bolus and discretization of the time series. There was a moderate positive correlation between the variable behaviour: dry matter per bolus, number of discrete eating and resting periods and the variable of dry matter intake (DMI). There was a strong positive correlation between the variables of behaviour: total chewing time, NDF/BOLUS, ADF/ BOLUS and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake variables. There was a negative moderate correlation between the behaviour variable TRP (time resting period) and the NDF and ADF intake variables. According to the correlations found in this study, between the behaviour aspects and intake of NDF and ADF can support studies aimed to the formulation of diets supplemented based the understanding on behaviour of food intake by animals.
A study to determine the haematology and carcass visual appraisal of broiler chickens fed basal feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: Basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds with Centrosema pubescence (T2 - PBF + CLM), Azadirachta indica (T3 - PBF + NLM) and Aspilia africana (T2 - PBF + ASLM) respectively, were used in a completely randomized design (CRD). On the last day of a 63-day feeding and growth trial, a set of 2 ml blood samples were taken from 3 broilers per treatment into plastic tubes containing the anti-coagulant ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for the determination of haematological parameters: PCV, Hb, RBC and WBC. The MCHC, MCH and MCV were also determined. Visual appraisals of their external body parts per treatment were also carried out. Results on the blood parameters of broilers fed Aspilia africana, Azadirachta indica and Centrosema pubescence leaf meals showed normal blood values recommended for healthy birds. Similarly, broilers fed these leaf meals showed a better appeal for their carcasses because of the yellow pigmentation of their body parts (shank, skin, beak and ear lobes). This will be an advantage to the consumers because it supplies vitamin A necessary for better vision. It was concluded that poultry farmers incorporate Aspilia africana, Azadirachta indica and Centrosema pubescence at 5% inclusion levels in broiler feeds because it is not deleterious and can be of additional advantage due to the attractiveness of their carcasses to consumers.
The study assessed the use of indigenous communication media among rural dwellers of Osun state to determine their knowledge level. Specifically, indigenous communication media that are often utilized by the rural dwellers were identified and socio-economic characteristics were described. Key informants and other 120 respondents were interviewed using interview schedule from two communities in each of the six administrative zones of the state. Data analysis was carried out using frequency counts, percentage, mean, standard deviation. Data analysis showed the mean age of respondents to be 47±7 years and 65% of them were male. Majority were literate. The findings revealed that majority had low knowledge about indigenous communication and more so, most of this communication had gone to extinction except on few cases such as use of proverbs, folklores and songs in which they were highly knowledgeable. Key informant interview showed that coded symbols were phasing out. The study concluded that the use of indigenous communication media was being gradually phased out. It recommends that Indigenous communication media that are often used should not be abandoned in the face of modern communication media, and those that are abandoned should be used so that people, especially the young, would get used to them.
Crops, livestock and trees are major components of farming systems in Ethiopia. Crop production is dominant in Ethiopian agriculture as well as in the farming system. Legumes are among the various crops produced in all regions of the country in different volumes after cereals. More than twelve legume species are grown in the country. Pulses production by volume has been increased by 71.92% for the duration of nearly 20 years and with a growth rate of 3.78% per annum. Area coverage by pulse crops for the same period grown by 53% with a growth rate of 3% per year. Total pulses grain yield, which is volume of production per unit area, showed good increment from 8.79 quintals per hectare in the cropping year 1994/1995 to 14.76 quintals per hectare in 2012/2013 cropping season. However, it is much lower compared to the potential demonstrated in research managed fields. Legumes have multiple uses. Grain legumes provide food and feed and facilitate soil nutrient management. Herbaceous and tree legumes can restore soil fertility and prevent land degradation while improving crop and livestock productivity sustainably. The pulse industry in the country has developed significantly with little intervention, and great potential exists to increase the production and impact of pulses through proactive and targeted support. The role that Ethiopia now plays in the international pulse market can be attributed to significant growth rates in pulse production over the last nearly 20 years. However, bunch of constraints and considerable gaps lean the legumes along the value-chain from production to marketing and utilization. The country needs to target the constraints and gaps to optimize the importance of legumes in the farming system and economy of the country.