Open Access Short Research Article

A Rapid Morphological Screening Procedure for Pea (Pisum sativum L.) under Drought Stress in Greenhouse Settings

Eliane T. Bodah, Kurt Braunwart, Brian W. Bodah, Alcindo Neckel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 68-74
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/16669

Aims: This work proposes a rapid morphological screening procedure for peas grown under drought stress aiming to provide phenotypic evaluations for further research.
Materials and Methods: The plant yield and morphological changes of two widely grown pea cultivars (‘Aragorn’ and ‘Banner’) to drought stress was evaluated in this work. A total of eighty seeds of each pea variety were grown in a randomized completed block with four replicates in a greenhouse located in Moscow, ID. Plants were subjected to optimal irrigation (1400 ml as a control) and two treatments that reduced optimal irrigation rates by 40% (840 ml, moderate drought) and 60% (560 ml, severe drought) to induce drought stress. The test was repeated.
Results: Varieties significantly (P<0.05) differed in their response to water deficiency. The variety ‘Banner’ appeared to be the most drought tolerant than ‘Aragorn’ with high values at control, moderate and severe as (85.00±4.08) cm, (87.21±3.26) cm and (66.02±2.92) cm respectively for total plant height, while the values for total dry weight were (3.65±0.20) g, (2.18±0.42) g and (1.26±0.10) g respectively. Similarly, there were significant (P<0.001) differences among treatments on growth parameters, with highest values recorded at optimal irrigation (1400 ml) as (21.52±2.42) cm, (62.18±4.68) cm, (0.24±0.04) g, (2.86±0.38) g and (2.30±0.18) seeds/pod for root length, shoot height, root weight, shoot weight and number of seeds respectively. The growth parameters decreased with a decrease of irrigation.
Conclusion: As drought and stress conditions are expected to increase as global climate change progresses, breeding for drought is a promising area. Therefore, the variety ‘Banner’ has been identified as a potential parental material to be used in breeding for drought tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Morphology and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Crop under Reduced Irrigation in Delhi (India) Weather Conditions

A. K. Mishra, S. S. Parihar, V. Visha Kumari, T. K. Srivastava, Khan Chand

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 12-39
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/14316

Aims: Water is one of the most valuable resources for the survival of civilization. Assured supply of water is necessary for sustainable agriculture. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important staple food crop in India and is cultivated in different agro-ecological regions of northern, eastern and central parts of the country occupying 25.4 million hectare (M ha) and nearly 54% of its area is irrigated. A sizeable 46% area under wheat is still rain dependent which often is faced with reduced irrigation thus decreased crop yield. The aim of this study is to facilitate the farmers of this reason in taking the appropriate decisions as regards providing supplemental irrigation with limited water supply conditions so that comparable yields could be obtained with the water application to critical crop growth stages.
That constitutes about 27% of the irrigated area of India. Changing climate has resulted into recurrence of long rainless spells during winter season (rabi) at places in India known for extensive wheat production which is main staple food of the masses. Wheat crops growth and performance is adversely affected by soil moisture stress so is the growth of roots and consequently the nutrient uptake that reflects into the yield and yield attributes. Hence, the main objectives of present study were to access, the effect of reduced irrigation on yield attributes, root development, dry matter accumulation and partitioning of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop under reduced irrigation in Delhi (India) during winter (rabi) weather conditions.
Study Design: Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted at the W-3 Experimental Farm of the Water Technology Centre, IARI, New Delhi during the rabi cropping season of 2011-12. Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI) is located at New Delhi (28º38’N, 77º10’E) at an elevation of 248 m above MSL. The crop was sown in the month of Novemebr and harvested at the end of April of the next year. The sandy loam soils of the experimental area, where the field experiments were conducted can be characterized as having low water holding capacity. Delhi falls in the semi arid climatic conditions. The experimental design for the experiment was Randomized Block Design (RBD), replicated four times. The present experiment used a high yielding cultivar of wheat variety HD 2967 having the growth period of 120 days.
Methodology: For root analysis, the roots were taken from a depth of 0-90 cm and were analyzed for different properties like root length, surface area and volume using root scanner (EPSON expression 1640XL, Japan). The same roots were then used for measuring wet mass and kept in an oven at 70ºC for three days before taking dry mass (Figs. 3 and 4). WinRhizoTM software was used with an approved scanner, Yield and yield attributes were measured using standard experimental procedures. Observations on plant growth (crop morphometry, photosynthetic activity (LAI), dry mass partitioning), soil moisture dynamics and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop were taken under a well structured schedule.
Results: There was no significant difference in the plant height in the early stages (30 days after sowing (DAS)) in wheat during the winter (rabi) season of 2011-12. However, in the later stages i.e., during late vegetative and reproductive phases, various treatments exhibited significant differences in yield and yield attributes. Also, in number of tillers/m2 and leaf area index (LAI) a highly significant differences were observed among treatments. It was worth noticing that skipping irrigation in CRI and milking stages has significant decrease in the dry matter accumulation even though the treatment with no water deficiency (T8) recorded highest dry matter accumulation. Significant differences among the treatments were also observed especially in root length. The treatment T1 with no irrigation (Control) recorded in significant reduction with T8 treatment (no water deficiency), which clearly indicated that root of the crop elongated in stress condition to fulfill its metabolic activities. crop tries to utilize the available soil moisture in this case. Root length has also shown a direct correlation with soil moisture availability.
Conclusion: Skipping of irrigation during tillering stage has drastically reduced the elongation of root among all the treatment. T4 treatment (100% soil moisture deficient at booting stage) has resulted in highest root length which indicates that irrigation is critical during the flowering and milk stages of wheat. Root surface has been drastically reduced in treatment T1 (No irrigation in all growth stages).

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening for Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp Tritici, Eriks. & e. Henn.) Resistance in Mutant Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Lines

I. J. Obare, M. G. Kinyua, O. K. Kiplagat, F. M. Mwatuni

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 40-45
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/16332

Stem rust is a devastating disease in barley that is caused by a fungi (Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici, Eriks. and E. Henn). The disease has been controlled for quite some time due to the presence of cultivars carrying the resistant gene Rpg1. It has been effective in controlling the various races of stem rust. This was so until the emergence of the race Ug99 from Uganda in the year 1998. This race did break all the resistant genes that were there hence the need to get new sources of resistance. In the current study, mutation breeding was used to create variation for stem rust resistance (Ug99). Seeds of barley (Nguzo variety- MO) were sent to Vienna in Austria for irradiation at the International Atomic Energy Agency at a dosage of 250 gray. The M1 seeds were multiplied in University of Eldoret experimental field. Thousand plants were randomly selected from the M1 population, two ears were harvested of each plant that were subsequently divided within two groups. One group was planted at University of Eldoret experimental field while the other group of a thousand ears were planted at KARI Njoro as M2. Each ear formed a row/line. A susceptible line of wheat was planted as a spreader and inoculated with stem rust -Ug99 in both sites. A total of 183 lines were selected from the two sites. These lines were again replanted in university of Eldoret as M3 in a RCBD design with three replicates in the field to determine adult plant resistance and in the green house in a CRD design to determine the seedling resistance. The non mutated parent, Nguzo was used as a check. The following lines did show resistance both at the seedling level and adult plant level (1, 2, 9, 21, 26, 49, 55, 58, 59, 69, 76 and 78). Mutational breeding is therefore recommended for continual screening of these lines as this race may mutate further.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Sowing Dates on Growth and Grain Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars under Agro-environment of Taluka Dokri Sindh, Pakistan

Hafeez ur Rehman, Rafi Qamar, Atique ur Rehman, Farhan Ahmad, Jamshaid Qamar, Muhammad Saqib, Shah Nawaz

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/16965

Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the effect of different sowing dates on growth and grain yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars.
Study Design: A randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split plot arrangement was used.
Place and Duration of Study: Pulses Section, Rice Research Institute, Dokri, Sindh, Pakistan during Rabi season of 2012-13.
Methodology: Five sowing dates [Sl = 15th October 2012, S2 = 30th October 2012, S3 = 15th November 2012, S4 = 30th November 2012 and S5 = 15th December 2012] in main plots and four cultivars [Vl = DG-92, V2 = Chhola, V3 = DG-89 and V4 = Sanyasi] in sub-plot.
Results: Sowing dates had significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) on days to 50 % flowering, plant height, branches and pods per plant and 1000-seed weight while cultivars had on days to 50 % flowering and 1000-seed weight. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed among sowing dates and chickpea cultivars interaction for days to 90 % maturity and grain yield. The maximum days to 90 % maturity were observed for cultivar Sanyasi (169 days) when sown on 15th October while minimum for cultivar DG-92 (122 days) when sown on 15th December. Grain yield was maximized for DG-92 (3.3 Mg ha-1) at sowing date of 15th November.
Conclusion: It is concluded that under agro-climatic conditions of Taluka Dokri, District Larkana, Province Sindh, Pakistan, cultivar DG-92 performed the best when sown on first fortnight of November.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Natural Mating Frequency and Artificial Insemination on Fertility in Rabbits and Their Cyto-genetic Profile (X-chromatin)

P. K. Ajuogu, U. Herbert, M. A. Yahaya

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/5188

A study was conducted to determine the cyto-genetic profile of breeding rabbits and the impact of natural mating frequency and artificial insemination on its fertility status. Twenty four (post-pubertal) does aged 8-9 months and four matured (aged 10-12 months) fertile bucks of New Zealand white breed, were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (A, B, C and D) in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Groups A to C had been subjected to different level of daily mating of once a day (treatment A- the control), twice daily (treatment B) and thrice daily (treatment C) mating pattern. Animals of group D were subjected to artificial insemination. The experiment lasted for six months, during which two parities were obtained. The mean conception rate, kindling rate and litter size showed significant differences (p<0.001) among experimental groups according to increasing level of frequency of daily mating. Significant difference (p<0.05) was also observed on litter weight when decreasing the order of daily mating frequency. The frequency of daily mating had no influence (p>0.05) on gestation length. The X-chromatin incidence of does with zero conception and their males were within a normal range of 2-12% and 0-2%, respectively. It can be concluded that daily mating frequency has a favorable influence on reproductive parameters examined in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Evaluation of Levo Botanical Insecticide for the Management of Insect Pests of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

John Peter Nyaaba Aetiba, Enoch Adjei Osekre

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17111

Renewed interest in the use of botanical insecticides for the management of insect pests necessitated field experiments to be carried out during the major and minor cropping seasons in 2013 at the plantation crops section of the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana to evaluate the insecticidal potency of Levo botanical insecticide for the management of insect pests of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). The study comprised the following treatments: (i) Levo (a.i. Oxymatrine) at 1.68 ml /0.5 litre water and (ii) Lambda-super (a.i. Lambda-cyhalothrin) (a check) at 1.5 ml /0.5 litre water; an untreated control (water only) was also maintained. Leuninodes orbonalis (Guen), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Aphis gossypii (Glover), and Eublemma olivacea (Walker) were collected on eggplant in the study area. Significant differences (PË‚0.5) were observed among the treatments with respect to the abundance of A. gosspyii, L. orbonalis, B. tabaci and E. olivacea on eggplant during the major season. Similar results were obtained in the minor season. Significantly higher yields were obtained from the insecticide-treated eggplant plots. The study showed that Levo was as effective as Lambda super and can be a substitute in the management of insect pests of eggplant.

Open Access Review Article

Lactic Acid Bacteria of Potential as a Means of Inhibiting Undesirable Microorganisms in Warm Season Grass Silages

Daniele de Jesus Ferreira, Anderson de Moura Zanine, Edson Mauro Santos, Juliana Silva de Oliveira, Ricardo Martins Araujo Pinho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/14281

The presence of some microorganisms in silage besides reducing nutritional value and may represent risks to animal and human health due potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Enterobacteria, bacteria of the genus Clostridium spp and bacteria of the genus Listeria spp develop in badly fermented silage, in which pH drop is slower. After silos opening, yeasts, fungi and Bacillus spp initiate aerobic degradation, leading to pH rising and reappearing of Clostridium spp, Listeria spp and enterobacteria. Thus, development control those microorganisms by adequate fermentation is extremely important, since besides reducing silage quality, many are pathogenic or produce substances that are harmful to animal and human health.