Open Access Short Research Article

Brown Cane Sugar–cattle Production Integration for Rural Economic Development Prospects in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Rahim Darma, A. Majdah M. Zain, A. Nixia Tenriawaru

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 107-119
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/12412

Sugar plays an important role in Indonesian economy; the commodity is one of the major import commodities in recent years. Integration of brown cane sugar (BCS) with cattle production is a potential business opportunity that can be developed for rural economic development. This integration can optimize the use of marginal lands, and facilitate the development of environment friendly organic farming. The research objective was to identify the potential for the development of BCS-cattle production integration based on land resources, technology, culture, labor force, and markets. Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews of 75 randomly selected farms from three districts (Barru, Wajo, and Bone), all of them in South west Sulawesi, Indonesia. The results showed that there is a huge potential of 302,771 ha’s cultivated farm land, comprising of 10,355 ha’s rice fields, 86,753 ha’s dry land and 205.663 ha’s paddock grazing. Cattle raising is part of the farming culture in Sulawesi and a major source of income for most rural households. BCS-cattle production integration can generate employment opportunities, promote sugar and meat import substitution, produce biogas as an alternative energy source, increase the use of organic fertilizer, and promote organic-based farming system. For this system to be successful, government support is needed in establishing pilot projects at various locations which are expected to encourage farmers to adapt and develop the integrated farming system for rural economic development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Spray Tip and Spray Volume on the Efficacy of Imazapic and Imazethapyr on Selected Weed Species

W. James Grichar, Peter A. Dotray

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 75-86
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17209

Aims: To evaluate control of weeds commonly found in peanut fields when using imazapic or imazethapyr applied post emergence with different spray tips and at different spray volumes.
Study Design: Experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications and a seven spray volume (47, 71, 94, 117, 140, 164, and 187 L ha-1) or a six spray tip [110015 flat fan (FF), 110015 Turbo TeeJet (TT), 110015 drift guard (DG), 110015 air induction (AI), 110015 turbo drop (TD), and 110015 extended range (XR)] by two herbicides (imazapic or imazethapyr) factorial arrangement of treatments.
Place and Duration of Study: Field studies were conducted during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons in the south Texas and in the Texas High Plains peanut growing regions.
Methodology: Spray volumes and spray nozzle tips were compared for control of the annual grasses Urochloa texana (Buckl.) R. Webster, and Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel. and the broadleaf weeds Amaranthus palmeri L., Cucumis melo L. var. DudaimNaud., Ipomoea lacunose L., Sida spinosa L., Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., Tribulus terrestris L., and Proboscidea louisianica (Mill.) Thellung.
Results: U. texana control was not affected by spray volume but D. ciliaris control was affected. With D. ciliaris, as spray volume increased, herbicide efficacy decreased. Spray volume did affect A. palmeri efficacy. In both years at the High Plains location, a spray volume of 47 L ha-1 provided better control than 187 L ha-1. C. melo, I. lacunose, T. terrestris, and S. spinosa control with both herbicides decreased as spray volume increased. Annual grass control was not affected by spray tip application while A. palmeri efficacy was reduced at one location with 110015XR nozzle tips. C. melo, I. lacunose, and S. spinosa control was not affected by spray tip; however, 110015TT and 110015FF provided the best control of S. elaeagnifolium and P. louisianica, respectively.
Conclusion: Depending on weed species the amount of carrier volume and spray tip can affect weed efficacy under similar conditions as found in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Regeneration of Sweet Potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) from Node Explants

N. C. Onwubiko, C. Ijeoma Ihezie, M. U. Mozie

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 87-92
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/11504

Investigations on in vitro clonal propagation of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) were carried out at tissue culture laboratory of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Ipomea batatas variety 440293 used was maintained in a culture room at 28 ±2°C under a 16 h photoperiod provided by white florescent tubes (60 µmo/lm-2s-1). Phytohormones- α-naphthaleneactic acid (NAA) at different concentrations and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2 mg/l were used for the study. Summarily, data collected on the assessed growth parameters of the explants as tested with F test and t test showed that both the different levels of NAA and the number of weeks of application significantly (P< 0.05) enhanced in vitro production of sweet potato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance and Haematological Profiles of Crossbred Male Rabbits Fed Yam and Cassava by Products in the Humid Tropics

Joseph S. Ekpo, Nseabasi N. Etim, Glory D. Eyo, Edem E. A. Offiong, Metiabasi D. Udo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 93-98
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/15903

This study was conducted to evaluate growth rate and haematological profiles of crossbred weaner males rabbits fed cassava and yam peels meal diets. Thirty-six crossbred weaner male rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments. Each treatment having 3 replicates with 3 rabbits per replicate in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 was composed by 37% of maize (control group), diet 2-37% of yam peel, diet 3-37% cassava peel and diet 4-37% yam-cassava peel mix. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Results obtained revealed that rabbits that received diets 2 performed better (P<0.05) than those that were fed diets 1, 3 and 4 in terms of daily weight gain. Haematological parameters assessed indicated no treatment effect (P>0.05) among the groups. It is concluded that yam peel, cassava peel, and yam – cassava peel mix could successfully replace maize in rabbits diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of High Night Temperatures on Cotton Leaf Gas Exchange and ATP Levels at Flowering

Dimitra A. Loka, Derrick M. Oosterhuis

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 99-106
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17347

Aims: To monitor the effects of high night temperatures on leaf photosynthesis and respiration, stomatal conductance and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels of cotton during its reproductive stage.
Study Design: A two-factor factorial, the two factors being temperature and time (weeks), with 40 replications in each of the temperature treatment.
Place and Duration of Study: Altheimer Laboratory, Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, between September 2013 and June 2014.
Methodology: Growth chamber experiments were conducted using cotton (Gossypium hisrsutum L.) cultivar ST5288B2F with the treatments consisting of normal day/night temperatures (32/24ºC) and high night temperatures (32/30ºC) for two weeks at flowering. Measurements of leaf photosynthesis, respiration, stomatal conductance and ATP levels were conducted in the end of the first and the second week after imposition of stress.
Results: Leaf photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance rates remained unaltered under higher night temperatures during both weeks of the experiment. In contrast, a significant increase in leaf respiration rates was observed at the end of the second week of the experiment with plants grown under conditions of high night temperatures increasing their respiration rates by 30% compared to those grown under normal temperatures. Conversely, leaf ATP levels were significantly decreased under conditions of elevated night temperatures.
Conclusion: It was concluded that higher than optimum temperatures during flowering had no significant effect on cotton leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in contrast to leaf respiration and ATP levels that were significantly decreased.

Open Access Original Research Article

GGE Biplot Analysis of Multi-environment Yield Trials of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) Genotypes in North Western Ethiopia

Fentaw Abate, Firew Mekbib, Yigzaw Dessalegn

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 120-129
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/9994

This experiment was done to identify the most stable durum wheat genotype(s) as well as desirable environment(s) for durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum Desf.) research in north western Ethiopia. Grain yield performance of the tested genotypes were evaluated at four locations (Adet, Debretabor, Gaint and Simada) using randomized complete block design with three replication for two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). Combined analysis of variance showed that grain yield was significantly affected by environments (E), genotypes (G) and GE interactions. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) were used to create a two-dimensional GGE biplot and explained 45.67% and 32.71% of the total sums of squares of GE interaction, respectively. The ‘which-won-where’ feature of the GGE biplot suggested that the existence of three durum wheat mega-environments in north western Ethiopia. Among the testing environments, six environments such as E1, E2, E4, E5, E6 and E8 were included inside mega-environment one (ME1) while the remaining two testing environments, E3 and E7 were included inside mega–environment two (ME2) and mega-environment three (ME3), respectively. The GGE biplot also identified G7, G5 and G10 as winning genotypes at ME1 whereas G11 was identified as a high yielding genotype in both ME2 and ME3. According to the average environment coordination (AEC) views of the GGE-biplot, genotype G10 was identified as the most stable and high yielding genotype. In addition, G1 and G6 also showed better stability performance among the high yielding genotypes whereas genotype G12 was identified as the least stable and low yielding genotype. Therefore, genotypes G10, G1 and G6 were recommended for commercial production in most wheat growing areas of north western Ethiopia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Inclusion of Ethanolic Extracts of Jatropha curcas on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

G. O. Adeyemo, F. A. Oluyede

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 130-136
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/10580

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Jatropha curcas leaf extract on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty day old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were used. They were divided into five treatments and each treatment was replicated five times. Treatment one, (Negative control, no antibiotics), Treatment two (positive control, with antibiotics) while treatments three, four and five had varying inclusion levels of the Jatropha curcas leaf extract (0.25 g/100 kg, 0.50 g/100 kg and 0.75 g/100 kg of feed respectively). The birds were raised for a total number forty two days during which, they were fed ad libitum on a deep litter system of management. Weekly weight gained and feed consumed were recorded. Evisceration of carcass was done after forty two days; each part was weighed and recorded. Performance characteristics indicated no significant (P>0.05) difference in feed consumed and feed conversion ratio, but treatment 4 with 0.50 g/100 kg of Jatropha curcas extract has the best feed conversion ratio, but there were significant (P<0.05) differences in total weight gain.