Open Access Original Research Article

Somatic Embryo Formation from Co-cultivated Protoplasts of Brassica rapa & B. juncea

Md Jasim Uddin, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Sharif-Ar Raffi, Sabrina Afrin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 342-349
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17696

Aims: The objectives of this experiment was to establish initial steps of somatic embryogenesis from the fused protoplasts between two Brassica species: Brassica rapa L. (var. Agrani, AA, 2n=20) and Brassica juncea L. (var. BINA Sharisha-7 and var. BINA Sharisha-8, AABB, 2n=36).
Study Design: The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications for each hormone treatment of each variety combination.
Place and Duration of Study: An experiment was conducted in growth room of tissue culture laboratory at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from April, 2013 to May, 2014.
Methodology: Mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from the young leaves of aseptically grown plants. Variety combinations for protoplasts fusion were: Agrani+BINA Sharisha-7 and Agrani+ BINA Sharisha-8. 100% polyethylene glycol-400 was used as a fusogen. Pellieter different compositions of liquid media were used for protoplasts cultured, microcalli, calli and somatic embryo formation.
Results: Fused products were cultured in a modified Pellieter B liquid media with different combinations of auxins and cytokinin for callus induction. A medium having 1 mg L-1 NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 2,4-D produced micro-calli of 518 µm diameter on 15 days after dark treatment. The same hormone combinations produced 1.6 mm visible calli after 24 days of incubation. After 82 days of culture, a medium composition of 0.5 mg L-1 BAP + 0.5 mg L-1 NAA resulted in 76% somatic embryo formation. Agrani+BINA Sarisha-7 produced significantly higher somatic embryos compared to Agrani+BINA Sarisha-8.
Conclusion: Our results might be helpful for developing a complete and efficient protocol of somatic hybridization in Brassica species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Xylopia aethiopica Dried Fruits (Grains of Selim) as Additive on Performance, Microbial Response and Blood Parameters in Finisher Broilers

J. O. Isikwenu, J. E. Udomah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 350-360
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17083

The effect of grains of selim (Xylopia aethiopica) as additive on the performance, gut microbes and blood parameters of finisher broilers was investigated. One hundred and ninety five (195) 28 days old broilers (Arbor acres strain) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups with each treatment having three replicates in a completely randomized design. Each treatment group had 39 chicks and 13chicks per replicate. The experiment was done in the Poultry Research Unit of the Department of Animal Science, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria between November 2013 and January 2014. Well homogenized powdered grains of selim was dissolved and given through drinking water in treatments 2, 3, 4 and 5 at concentrations of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g per litre but chicks on treatment 1 (control) received 0.3 g/litre of antibiotics (doxygen). Chicks were fed with isoproteinous and isocaloric diets with 20% crude protein and 2905.95 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy ad libitum for four weeks. Results showed no significant differences among treatments in the final body weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain, total feed intake, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio. There were no significant differences in the microbial population count of the faeces before and after the birds received treatment of antibiotics and grains of selim in drinking water. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters. However there were significant differences in serological parameters with creatinine, cholesterol and urea values highest in the control but progressively decreased with increased concentration of grains of selim whereas albumin, total protein and globulin values were similar. Results showed that grains of selim has antimicrobial and anthelminthic properties, and have growth promoting potentials in broiler chickens with no adverse health implications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparatives Effectiveness of Two Vetiveria Grasses Species Chrysopogon zizanioides and Chrysopogon nigritana for the Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

M. O. Adigun, K. S. Are

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 361-366
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/13359

The study was carried out at the screen house of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R&T) to determine the responses of two vetiver grasses cultivars (Vetiver zizanioides and Vetiver nigritana) on four different contaminated soils and their potential to remediate metal contaminated soil. The experiment was a 3 x 4 factorial experiment arrange in a randomized complete block design and replicated thrice. There were three levels of vetiveria grasses (V. zizanioides, V. nigritana, and no vetiver) and four contaminated soils. The absorption of metal contaminants like lead, cadmium, and zinc by the two vetiver cultivars was determined in all treatments. In mechanic village soil, V. zizanioides absorbed more of zinc followed by V. nigritana with percentage reduction of 7.0 and 5.9 respectively. In industrial waste soil, the percentage reduction of heavy metal in the soil was 27.6 and 18.8 by V. zizanioides and V. nigritana, respectively. Also in urban waste soil, there was a percentage reduction of 13.7 and 6.1 by V. nigritana and V. zizanioides, respectively. In mechanic village soil, V. nigritana absorbed more of cadmium in the soil than V. zizanioides with percentage reduction of cadmium being 30.5 and 26.2 respectively. In urban waste soil, there were percentage reductions of 7.1 and 6.8 in V. nigritana and V. zizanioides. In mechanic village soil, V. nigritana absorbed more of lead than V. zizanioides with percentage reduction of 36.3 and 43.4 respectively. In urban waste soil, there were percentage reduction of 10.2 and 6.3 by V. zizanioides and V. nigritana respectively. In industrial waste soil, there were percentage reduction of 39.2 and 29.9 by V. zizanioides and V. nigritana respectively. Vetiver nigritana, the local variety, proved to have the great potential of phytoextracting the heavy metals in the contaminated soils than the exotic cultivar (V. zizanioides).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Shoot Tip and Flower Removal on Growth and Yield of Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) in Kenya

Emily E. Wangolo, Cecilia M. Onyango, Charles K. K. Gachene, Peter N. Mong’are

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 367-376
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17271

Aims: Despite spider plant’s (Cleome gynandra L.) high nutritional value, it has received minimal research attention compared to exotic vegetables and other indigenous vegetables such as amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). This has led to a lack of scientific production recommendations. This study contributes to developing best agronomic practices for spider plant by determining its response to shoot tip and flower removal that can lead to more profitable small-scale commercial production of the vegetable.
Place and Duration of Study: Two field experiments were conducted at the Upper Kabete Field Station of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains (February-May) and in the dry season (June-August) 2014.
Methodology: A randomized completed block design with three replications was used. Commercial spider plant seeds were drilled in raised beds with cow manure as nutrient input (50 kg N ha-1). Plants were thinned to 30 x 20 cm, 30 x 15 cm and 20 x 15 cm spacings at six weeks after planting. Shoot tips were removed once when plants were 10-15 cm tall, and flowers were removed at bud formation throughout the experiment.
Results: Flower removal produced significantly (P=.05) greater plant height, leaf yield, and fresh and dry shoot weight than both shoot tip removal and the control. Flower removal plants reached a height of 66 cm, compared to 48 and 49 cm for shoot tip removal and the control, respectively. For total leaf yield, flower removal produced 12.3 t ha-1, which was significantly greater than both shoot tip removal (8.4 t ha-1) and the control (6.5 t ha-1). Fresh shoot weight was 22.1, 15.2 and 14.4 t ha-1 for flower removal, shoot tip removal and the control, respectively.
Conclusion: Flower removal during production of spider plant should be practiced in order to increase growth and leaf yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Maize Planted after Two Legumes to Four Rates of Phosphate Rock

J. N. Odedina, S. A. Odedina, T. O. Fabunmi, S. O. Adigbo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 377-383
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/18454

A field experiment was conducted to study the combined effect of legume growth (in terms of agronomic P use efficiency from Phosphate rock (PR) and sources of nitrogen (N) from legumes and subsequent organic matter additions (green manure incorporation) on the growth and yield of maize. Four rates of PR (0, 40, 50 and 60 kg ha-1 P) were applied to two legume types: mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and incorporated before sowing maize in a randomised complete block design replicated three times at the Teaching and Research farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Mucuna gave a significantly (p<0.05) higher percent N and dry weight (kg ha-1) compared to cowpea. The interaction of cowpea × 40 kg ha-1 PR gave a significantly higher value in Agronomic efficiency of applied Phosphorus (AEP) and Partial factor productivity of Phosphorus (PFPP), respectively. The increase in the AEP and PFPP by cowpea in the interactions could be that cowpea dissolved phosphorus from rock Phosphorus (P) better compared to mucuna by the combination of P release into soil solution following the mineralisation of organic P additions via cowpea. The interaction of mucuna × 50 kg ha-1 rock P significantly increased fresh cob weight of maize. Sustainable maize production can be achieved with combination of rock phosphate at 50 kg ha-1 and mucuna.

Open Access Original Research Article

GIS-Based Assessment of Land Suitability for Industrial Crops (Cotton, Sesame and Groundnut) in the Abyan Delta, Yemen

Mohammd Hezam Al-Mashreki, Khader Balem Atroosh, Abdullah Ahmed Muflahi, Nashwan Ahmed Obaid, King Caoline

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 384-405
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/16572

We investigated the potential and capability of GIS as a technique for integrating spatial and biophysical attribute data to produce land suitability maps of the main industrial irrigated cropland (cotton, groundnut, and sesame) cultivated in the Abyan, Yemen Delta, In order to improve decision-maker strategies. We collected 64 soil samples in a systematic, georeferenced soil survey. Spatial overlay of detailed soil site characteristics, physical site qualities, and crop specific requirements was performed to reveal areas suitable for crop production. Our results of the land suitability classification for cotton, sesame and groundnut indicated that the highly suitable class (S1) accounts 22.2%, 22.6% and 22.8%, while moderately suitable (S2) constitutes 36.7%, 37.2% and 37.4% and the marginally suitable (S3) are 13.1%, 13.1% and 12.5% respectively. Whereas, currently not suitable (N1) accounts 1.9%, 1.7% and 1.3% and the permanently not suitable constitutes 26.1%, 26.1% and 26.1% respectively. However, our results also reveal the total land suitability for the mentioned crops comprise 14862 ha (27.7%) is unsuitable (N1 & N2) and 38739 ha (72.3%) represent S1, S2 and S3 of the total land area. This study provides an approach to identify and classify land in relation to the suitability to support selected industrial cropland. It also provides insights for proper land use planning and appropriate management, which could help policy makers, planners, and decision-makers align development projects with the concurrent goal of improving long-term agricultural productivity. A GIS based approach for evaluating land is useful for sustainable agricultural planning.

Open Access Review Article

Promotion of Turmeric for the Food/Pharmaceutical Industry in Nigeria

J. O. Nwaekpe, H. N. Anyaegbunam, B. C. Okoye, G. N. Asumugha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 335-341
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/16517

This paper seeks to promote turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) through increased awareness of the potentials of the crop in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries in Nigeria. Nigeria can take the lead in turmeric production but this potential has not been fully tapped as the techniques needed for its production have not been properly understood by the farmers which have led to low production. Increased production and processing of turmeric as highlighted in this paper, has the potential of making a significant impact on the economy. This is because it has diverse uses and it is highly valued at the international market. Turmeric is used as a spice and is the major component of curry powder. Besides its use as a spice, turmeric finds a place in the cosmetics industry for its brilliant yellow colour and characteristic perfume. It is also being used as a dye for colouring fabrics. It is medically used for the prevention and treatment of diverse kinds of diseases as also highlighted in the paper. It is thus recommended that there should be adequate awareness on the potentials of turmeric especially in the southern part of Nigeria where the Research Institute that has the mandate to research into the crop is located. There is also need to develop improved varieties of the turmeric to boost production. Farmers should be provided with inputs like fertilizers and other agro-chemicals at subsidized rates in order to increase their production.