Open Access Original Research Article

Grain Health Protectant Activity of Essential Oils against Infestation and Damage of Haricot Bean by Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman)

Emana Getu Degaga

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/16761

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils extracted from Chenopodium ambrosioides (L.), Rosmarinus officinalis (L.), Eucalyptus globulus (Labill), Trachyspermum ammi (Sprague) and Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) against Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) under laboratory condition (27±3°C, 50-70% RH ). The test insects were reared in glass jar and investigated on whole Awash-1 haricot bean variety grains. A standard insecticide, primiphos-methyl 5% dust and untreated control were included for comparison. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design in three replications. Essential oils from the above mentioned plants were admixed with the bean grains at the rate of 750 mg/150 g of seeds. The rate of primiphos-methyl was 0.125 g/150 g of seeds. The results showed that there was complete mortality (100%) of Z. subfasciatus adults within 24 hours after treatment due to C. ambrosioides, E. globulus, T. ammi and C. citratus. Application of essential oils to bean grains significantly reduced progeny production of Z. subfasciatus. Over 97% inhibition of F1 progeny production by the pest was recorded for all essential oil treatments at the highest dose of 750 mg. Application of essential oil extracts also significantly reduced the rates of haricot bean grain infestation (up to 100%) by Z. subfasciatus. Furthermore, essential oil extracts admixed to the bean grain proved to have no significant effects on the germination capacity of the treated haricot bean grains. From the current experiment it can be concluded that the tested botanicals are as effective as primiphos-methyl which gave 100% control of Z. subfasciatus and can be used for the management of the pest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Three-different Commercial Feed on the Growth and Survival of Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 Fry in Aquaria Glass Tanks

A. F. Yakubu, N. A. Nwogu, E. D. Olaji, T. E. Adams

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/16342

Aims: To compare the growth response and survival rates of Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 fry fed artificially formulated fry feed using Artemia salina shell free as control.
Study Design: Randomized blocked design.
Place and Duration of Study: Wet laboratory of Nigeria Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), Sapele, Nigeria in November 2014 for twenty-eight (28) days.
Methodology: Five hundred and twenty (520) post yolk absorbed C. gariepinus fry were randomly selected from NIOMR hatchery and stocked at 130 fry per aquarium glass tank measuring 40cm x 30 cm x 30 cm. Four (4) experimental fry diets which translated to four Treatments were compared namely A. salina shell free (T1), Coppens (T2), Durante (T3) and Lucky Star (T4). Each experimental treatment was replicated three (3) times. All diets were administered manually four times a day between 0800 h and 1800 h based on 3% body weight. Physiochemical parameters were determined daily. Replacement of water in each glass aquarium tank was done daily after siphoning debris and counting of dead fry. Nutrient utilization parameters such specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency (FCE), survival rate (SR), % cannibalism and performance index (PI) were calculated.
Results: Initial mean weight of fry used in each treatment was 0.03±0.01 g. T1 and T4 showed final mean weights of 1.06±0.02 g and 0.87±0.01 g respectively while 0.06±0.03 g and 0.06±0.03 g were obtained in T2 and T3 respectively. % cannibalism of 3.0±0.02% was obtained in T2 and T3 while 2.0±0.03 and 2.0±0.02 were recorded for T1 and T4 respectively. Highest SGR of 12.73±0.92% was calculated for T1. This was followed by T4 (SGR=12.03±0.13%). SGR value (2.48%) was the same for T2 and T3. Highest SR of 96.0±1.76% and 88.0±1.56% was recorded in T1 and T4 respectively while a relatively lower values of 69.0±0.94% and 67.0±1.03% were obtained for T2 and T3 respectively. The best FCE value of 0.8% was obtained in T1 followed by T4 (0.9%). T2 and T3 had the least FCE value (1.2%). The monitored physiochemical parameters were not affected by the different diets during the 28 days feeding trial. On the average, Treatment T1 performed the best, T4 second while T2 and T3 performed the least.
Conclusion: Our study showed that A. salina shell free performed best followed by Lucky Star feed in growth performance and survival of C. gariepinus fry. We recommend the use of A. salina shell free as the best starter feed for the rearing of C. gariepinus fry. However, where A. salina shell free is not available Lucky Star fry feed may be employed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to Spraying of Nano Silver, Organic Fertilizer (Algastar) and Salicylic Acid and Their Impact on Seeds Content of Fatty Acids and Vicine

A. A. M. Yaseen, Mazeil H. Wasan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17898

This experiment is carried out on Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Spanish class (Viki) in one of the fields for the period from 05/03/2013 until 18/06/2013, where the shoots are sprayed after period of 65 days of its cultivation with 25 and 50 ml/l of nanosilver, 0.75 and 1.5 g/l of organic fertilizer (Algastar) and with the use of salicylic acid in two concentrations 60 and 120 mg/l in addition to the comparison treatment (spraying with distilled water only). The field experiment is laid as a factorial experiment which included three factors in RBCD design with three replications (3×3×3×3) that included three factors, the averages of transaction are compared by using LSD (least significant difference at 0.05%).
Results of the experiment have shown that spray shoots with 50 ml/l of nanosilver, 1.5 g/l of organic fertilizer (Algastar) and 120 mg/l of salicylic acid gave the highest positive effects of unsaturated fatty acids while the same high concentration of factors reduced the content of the most of the saturated fatty acids and vicine.The three way interaction has affection on field experiment in some studied traits positively while it has no significant effect on seeds content of vicine and fatty acids (Palmitic, Stearic, Archaic, Myristic, Linoleic and Oleic).

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Serum Biochemical Characteristics of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Complete Diets Containing Graded Levels of Sweet Orange Peel Meal

J. Oloche Oloche, J. A. Ayoade, O. I. A. Oluremi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/11313

Sixteen West African Dwarf (WAD) goats of about 6 - 8 months of age, having an average weight of 6.79 kg were used in a completely randomised design to evaluate the haematology and serum biochemistry of WAD goats fed diets containing graded levels of sweet orange peel meal (SOPM). Four dietary treatments were formulated and compounded to contain 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50% of SOPM, and these were designated T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively, and the study lasted for 84 days. Results showed that haematological parameters such as; haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), did not show significant difference (P>0.05) among the treatments means. Serum biochemical components such as urea, total protein (TP), albumin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and creatinine also did not show any significant variation among the treatments. The study showed that replacement of maize offal with SOPM up to 50% level in the complete diets of WAD goats did not adversely affect their haematology and serum biochemistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Nitrogen Levels and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Biomass Production, Mineral Nutrition, Sugar and Total Phenolic Content of Two Zea mays Cultivars

Louise Nana Wakam, Alvine Pokaa Nanhou, Raymond Fokom, Severin Nguemezi Tchameni, Eddy Leonard Mangaptche Ngonkeu, Pierre Eke, Jean Kuate, François-Xavier Etoa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/18088

The effects of two nitrogen levels and AM fungi inoculation on nutrient assimilation and some biochemical compounds of two Zea mays varieties were studied. Plants varieties (CMS8704 and POP66RS) were grown in pots with two nitrogen levels and AM fungi inoculation for 82 days. Plants grown under Low N condition showed significant reduction in biomass production, N and P uptake. POP66RS cultivar proved to be more efficient than CMS8704 under nitrogen deficiency environment, which was reflected by increased chlorophyll rate and carbohydrates content. However, under AM fungi CMS8704 variety show better performance than POP66RS variety. Significant increase in plant dry weights, P and N uptake were recorded following AM inoculation. AM fungi positively influences phenolic compounds while it decreases the soluble carbohydrates and total chlorophyll under low and high N, for the two cultivars. Evaluating such parameters in plant during it growth in fill could be further exploited for maize selection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eco-friendly Oil-in-Water Emulsion Formulation of Eucalyptus Oil for Controlling Some Important Phytopathogenic Fungi

Tahany G. M. Mohammad, Hanaa A. E. Attia

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/18262

Actually, a prodigious interest resides with the improvement and the use of particular biocontrol agent for the control of disease on plants. Our objective was to prepare an alternatives fungicide oil-in-water emulsion of eucalyptus oil and check shelf life stability by measuring number of physical parameters before and after storage tests to be sure that the formulation was stable and evaluates the antifungal activity of the oil itself and its developed formulation oil in water emulsion (EW) by the poisoned food technique. The results revealed that the prepared formulation showed the better storage stability and also, had good antifungal activity as a mycelial growth inhibition against all tested phytopathogenic fungi in compared with the eucalyptus oil. The EC50 values of eucalyptus oil on the tested phytopathogenic fungi; Colletotrichum dematium, Drechslera hawaiiensis, Humicola fuscoatra, Phoma spp and Nigrospora sphaerica were 5025.36, 4440.60, 4625.60, 5277.40 and 6115.79 ppm, respectively and the EC50 values of prepared oil water emulsion formulation on the tested phytopathogenic fungi were 196.37, 287.58, 353.00, 312.10 and 490.30 ppm, respectively. Eucalyptus oil could be successfully formulated in the form of stable oil water emulsion. The present results demonstrated that oil water emulsion formulation could be used as botanical fungicide to protect some crops from fungal diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen in Liquid Fertilizer on the Population Dynamics and within Plant Distribution of Aphis gossypii and Thrips palmi and Yield of Eggplant

Foster Appiah Baah, Enoch Adjei Osekre, Moses Brandford Mochiah, Vincent Logah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17715

A study was conducted in 2011 at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen in liquid fertilizer on the population dynamics and within plant distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover) and Thrips palmi Karny on eggplant (Solanum melongena L). In the major cropping season, whereas significantly more A. gossypii aggregated on the leaves in the lower canopy than the upper canopy in the treatment 2 (Sidalco liquid fertilizer + 1% sulphate of ammonia solution), treatment 3 (Sidalco liquid fertilizer + 0.5% sulphate of ammonia solution) and treatment 4 (Sidalco liquid fertilizer), no significant differences were recorded in the densities of the insect on the leaves in the canopy levels in the control (treatment 1). In the minor cropping season, it was only in the treatment 4 that significantly more A. gossypii aggregated on the leaves of the lower than the upper canopy. T. palmi densities were higher in the minor than in the major cropping season. In the major cropping season, it was only in the control that significantly more T. palmi aggregated on the leaves of the lower than the upper canopy. In the minor cropping season, however, significantly more T. palmi aggregated on the leaves of the lower than the upper canopy of plants on treatment 3 plots. Plots with the highest doses of N received the highest number of A. gossypii and T. palmi in both cropping seasons. The plots with the highest doses of N recorded the highest yield in both seasons. The study showed that higher levels of N in the liquid fertilizer increased aggregations of A. gossypii and T. palmi, and increased levels of N also resulted in increased yield.