Open Access Case study

Estimation of Lead (Pb) Flux, Distance of Travel and Break through Time Using Convective Flux Equations: A Case Study of Farmlands around Lead (Pb) Contaminated Goldmine in Zamfara Nigeria

J. H. Abdulkareem, A. Abdulkadir, N. Abdu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/20304

Estimating the transport and fate of chemicals released into the environment is an interesting and challenging task. The global environment is diverse on the chemical transport and fate scale. This paper applies the mathematics of convection to estimate the extent of lead (Pb) as it travels towards ground water. Highest flux (qs) value of 9.62 X 10-3 cm hr-1 was obtained at the initial time of estimation (72 hours) while the lowest qs value estimated is found to be 1.58 X 10-7 when the highest time (438000 hours) was used in the estimation. Break through values ranged from 17822.57-1.08 X 108 hr-1 in Dareta North, while it ranges from 11275.5-68592631 hr-1 in Dareta South. The results for estimated values of Pb flux, distance of travel and breakthrough time using convective flux equations in the study area suggests that Pb travel through the soil down the groundwater at an increasing flux as this will require immediate measures to curtail this. As the break through time needed for Pb to travel at a distance of 3.46 x 10-3 cm hr-1 with a qs value of   3.81 x 10-4 cm hr-1 through the soil to the ground water (with at distance of 10 m from the ground) after ten years if all things being equal is estimated to be 289080 hr-1.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Boron and Putrescene on Russet Asian pear (Pyrus spp. L.) under Subtropical Condition of Jharkhand Province of India

B. R. Jana

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/19054

A russet or brown spot in Asian pear is the most common phenomenon to the pear grower Particularly, when grown under subtropical to tropical climatic condition. Although one or two varieties of russet Asian pear cultivar developed for local consumption in New Zealand still substantial production of russet free Asian pear is a global demand as it is crunchy and tasty. ICAR-RCER, Research centre, Ranchi, Jharkhand where soil is acidic and boron deficiency is common and Pryrus prifolia produces small russet pear fruit. Hence, the objectives of the research work were non-cracking and ruseet free pear production by application of boron and production of quality fruit through the application of putrescence. Several attempts have been made so far but browning and fruit cracking were unpreventable which losses maximum production. Eight combinations of boron and putrescene were sprayed separately in 24 trees with one selected branch of each as replications. The experiment is laid out Randomized Block Design having three replications in each treatments and control plant was sprayed with only water. It has been found that T2 (T=treatment) Boron (0.2%) and Putrescene (0.1%) resulted in less russetting along with bigger fruit (324.66 g) and high TSS (14.0°B). Although, T6 treatment was at par with T2 in respect fruit size but remains second best following other characters. Regarding russet control, treatment T2 and T3 were at par having less lenticels (5-6) per square inch and look wise attractive

Open Access Original Research Article

Lime-Aluminium- Phosphorus Interactions in Acid Soils of the Kenya Highlands

E. M. Muindi, J. P. Mrema, E. Semu, P. W. Mtakwa, C. K. Gachene, M. K. Njogu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/20220

Liming and phosphorus (P) applications are common practices for improving crop production in acid soils of the tropics. Although considerable work has been done to establish liming rates for acid soils in many parts of the world, information on the role of the lime-Al-P interactions on P fertility management is minimal. A green house pot experiment was conducted at Waruhiu Farmers Training Centre, Githunguri to evaluate the lime-Al-P interactions in acid soils of the Kenya highlands. Extremely acidic (pH 4.48) and strongly acidic (pH 4.59) soils were used for the study. Four lime (CaO) rates and phosphorus (Ca (H2PO4)2 rates were used. The liming rates were: 0, 2.2, 5.2 and 7.4 tonnes ha-1 for extremely acidic soil and 0, 1.4, 3.2, and 4.5 tonnes ha-1 for the strongly acidic soil. Phosphorus applications rates were: 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.59 g P kg-1 soil for the extremely acidic soil and 0, 0.13, 0.26, and 0.51 g P kg-1 for the strongly acidic soils. The experiments were a 42 factorial laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Data collected included: soil chemical properties and P adsorption. The soils had high exchangeable Al (>2 cmol Al kg-1), Al saturation of (>20% Al) and low P. Lime-Al-P interaction significantly (P≤0.05) increased soil pH, extractable P, reduced exchangeable Al, Al saturation, P adsorption and standard phosphorus requirements (SPR). Use of 7.4 tonnes ha-1 lime in extremely acidic soils and 4.5 tonnes ha-1 lime in strongly acidic soils significantly reduced exchangeable Al and SPR by >70%. Lime positively correlated with soil pH, extractable P, and Langmuir maximal adsorption constant and negatively correlated with SPR and exchangeable Al. It was therefore concluded that lime and P positively interact to reduce Al and P adsorption rates in acid soils in the Kenya highlands

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Biochar Soil Amendment on Soil Properties and Yield of Sesame Varieties in Lafia, Nigeria

E. Ndor, O. J. Jayeoba, C. L. A. Asadu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/19637

The experiments were conducted during 2011 and 2012 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria; to evaluate the effect of biochar amended soil on soil properties and yield of sesame varieties. The treatments consisted of three rates of rice husk biochar (0, 5 and 10 t/ha) and three rates of sawdust biochar (0, 5 and 10 t/ha)  and two varieties of sesame (Yandev 55 and local variety) which were factorially combined and  laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The result showed that the soil is low in major nutrients before the incorporation of biochar. The soil was also acidic in nature (pH: 5.98). After incorporation of biochar and two y ears of cropping. Result  revealed that both rice husk and sawdust biochars rates did not showed any significant effect on sand, clay and silt; but had a significant effect on % soil moisture content, bulk density, % porosity and % soil water-filled pore space. Application of 10 t/ha  produced the highest value of 10.697%  and 10.77% soil moisture content, 36.47% and 35.58% of soil porosity, 50% and 50.6% soil water filled pore space  in both rice husk and sawdust biochar. This is at par with application of 5 t/ha of both biochars, but it is higher than the control treatment. However, bulk density decreases with increased rates of biochar application. Therefore, the control produced soils with the higher bulk density of 1.67 g/cm3 and 1.69 g/cm3 with rice husk and sawdust biochar respectively. Also, Rice husk and sawdust biochars rates had a significant effect on all the chemical properties in the soil. 10 t/ha of rice husk and sawdust biochar produced the highest levels of pH, = 6.80:6.74; %TN, =0.15: 0.14; K, =0.59: 0.65; %OC, = 0.68:0.75; Mg, = 0.75: 1.14; Na = 0.71:0.79 and CEC= 7.83:8.05, respectively. This is at par with application of 5 t/ha, but higher than the control.  Increased biochar application resulted in a gradual increase in all the chemical properties in the soil except H+Al which displayed an opposite trend. Application of 10 t/ha of sawdust and rice husk biochar produced the highest seed weight of 0.93: 0.83 t/ha and 0.90:0.95 t/ha in both years, respectively. This is at par with application of 5 t/ha of both biochars in the two cropping season, but higher than control.  Sesame varieties also showed a significant effect in both cropping season; Yandev 55 demonstrated its superiority against the local variety by producing 0.76 t/ha and 0.77 t/ha in 2011 and 2012 cropping season. However, the combine effect of sawdust biochar and rice husk biochar did not produce any significant effect on the soil properties and sesame yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Rice Accessions For Resistance to Rice Yellow Mottle Virus

Valentin S. Edgar Traore, Maxwell Darko Asante, Vernon E. Gracen, Samuel Kwame Offei, Oumar Traore

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/19897

Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is responsible for the most damaging virus disease of rice in Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the reaction of rice accessions to RYMV, for better control of the virus. Rice accessions including landraces and collections from research institutes were collected from 2010 to 2013 in Burkina Faso and Ghana. Two viral inoculums composed of non-resistance-breaking RYMV isolates (inoculum-1) on the one hand and of resistance-breaking isolates (inoculum-2) on the other hand were used for the screening experiments in the greenhouse. A subset of rice accessions were exposed to field isolates under field conditions of virus transmission. Experimental designs were randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Of 117 rice accessions challenged with inoculum-1, 69.2% were susceptible to RYMV and expressed disease symptoms between 10 and 13 days post-inoculation (DPI). Partial resistance was found in 30.7% of the accessions which expressed symptoms between 15 and 17 DPI. When inoculum-2 was used, the proportion of susceptible accessions was higher (84.6%) and symptoms appeared earlier (7-10 DPI). High resistance was not found in any accession. Leaf virus content allowed a clear distinction between susceptible, partially resistant and highly resistant accessions.

Altogether, these results indicated that the choice of virus isolates is critical when screening rice germplasm for resistance to RYMV. Non-resistance-breaking isolates should be used for successful detection of resistance in screened accessions

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of NAA, GA3 and Calcium Nitrate on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of "Le Conte" Pear Trees

Walid Fediala Abd El-Gleel Mosa, Nagwa A. Abd EL-Megeed, M. A. M. Aly, Lidia Sas Paszt

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/18737

Aims: Investigate the effect of gibberellic acid, naphthalene acetic acid and calcium nitrate on vegetative growth parameters, fruit set, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral content of "Le Conte" pear trees.

Study Design: Thirty five uniform trees were selected for the present study. The treatments were applied and arranged in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment included five replicates with one tree for each replicate.

Place and Duration of Study: This experiment was carried out during two successive seasons, 2012 and 2013, on 8 years old "Le Conte" pear budded on Pyrus communis L. rootstock. The trees were grown in sandy loam soil in a private orchard located at Burg EL-Arab, Alexandria governorate, Egypt.

Methodology: The trees were sprayed with water only (control treatment), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 50 and 100 mg/l, gibberellic acid (GA3) at 50 and 100 mg/l and calcium nitrate at 0.5 and 1 mg/l, three times: in full bloom, which was at the beginning of March, a month later and then two months from the first spray.

Results: The obtained results showed that the foliar application of NAA, GA3 and calcium nitrate significantly improved shoot length and thickness, leaf area, fruit set and fruit yield. Additionally, they gave a remarkable increase in weight, size and firmness of fruits and N, P, Ca and Mg content in the leaves over control. Among all the used treatments, calcium nitrate at 1 mg/l had the highest beneficial effect. It caused the best remarkable increase in fruit set percentages, yield (approximately 16 kg/tree), yield (ton/hectare), fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. Moreover, it significantly decreased fruit drop percentage, as compared to the control and the other treatments in both seasons.

Conclusion: The foliar application of calcium nitrate at 1% had the highest beneficial effect to increase fruit set percentages, yield, fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content in the fruit and to decrease fruit drop percentages of "Le Conte" pear trees compared with the control and the other treatments.

Open Access Review Article

Selection Criteria for Improvement in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Hafiz Saad Bin Mustafa, Ejaz ul-Hasan, Qurban Ali, Muhammad Anwar, Muhammad Aftab, Tariq Mahmood

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/17524

Pakistan is facing severe scarcity of edible oil and spending a huge amount of foreign exchange on its annual import. Sesame is the best option as an edible oilseed crop due to less water requirement. Various statistical analyses are used to test the contribution of different yield related traits for developing high yield potential cultivars. Correlation analysis illustrates the association among different yield related traits exist in plant population under study. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variability reveal the extent of differences among the accessions, due to the genetic factors and their response to environmental condition of the experiment. Path coefficient analysis reveals the relationship between variables in multivariable system is considered. Previous studies of various sesame breeders proved that plant height, number of branches per plant, capsules per plant, seeds per capsules, 1000-seed weight are the traits which have significant and positive correlations with yield per plant at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. These characters also have high path analysis values especially capsules per plant had highest direct effect on seed yield followed by 1000-seed weight. So, these traits may be used as selection criteria in future breeding programs for the improvement of seed yield of sesame