Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Some Potential Insecticides for Controlling Eggplant Shoot and Fruit Borer in Bangladesh

Muhammed Abdur Rahman, Arafat Topu, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Shahinoor Rahman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/19234

The experiment was conducted in the central farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University (SAU), Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh during February to September, 2013 to evaluate some potential insecticides in comparison with conventional insecticides for controlling eggplant shoot and fruit borer (ESFB), Leucinodes orbonalis. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and six treatments applied at 7 days interval. The treatments were T1 [Acimix 55 EC (Chlorpyrifos 50% + 5% Cypermethrin) at the rate of 1 ml/L of water]; T2 [Calypso (Thiacloprid) at the rate of 1 ml/L of water]; T3 [Neem oil at the rate of 3 ml/L of water]; T4 [Neem Seed Karnel Extract at the rate of 100 g/L of water]; T5 [Nexaid (Gamma-cyhalothrin) at the rate of 1.5 ml/L of water]; T6 (Untreated Control). The results revealed that amongst different treatments Acimix 55 EC was most effective in reducing shoot infestation (66.72%) and Calypso was found most effective in reducing fruit infestation over control by number (68.56%) and weight (61.04%). The best treatment, though, T1 and T2 reduced the highest level of shoot and fruit infestation respectively, they increased the maximum level of plant and fruit related yield attributes. T2 increased the maximum height, number of branches per plant, fruit length and girth, number of fruits per plant, and single fruit weight of eggplant over control followed by Acimix whereas Neem Seed Kernel Extract showed the least performance. Calypso also increased the highest fruit yield (15.36 t/ha) over control followed by Acimix (14.86 t/ha). So, Acimix 55 EC (Chlorpyrifos 50% + 5% Cypermethrin) and Calypso (Thiacloprid) may be suggested to the farmers for controlling Eggplant shoot and fruit borer (ESFB) at shoot and fruit infestation time respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Salinity Tolerance and Analysis of SSR Markers Linked with Saltol QTL in Sri Lankan Rice (Oryza sativa) Genotypes

B. A. Dahanayaka, D. R. Gimhani, N. S. Kottearachchi, W. L. G. Samarasighe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/20255

Aim: This research was aimed at assessing Sri Lankan rice varieties for the salinity tolerance using morphological traits and to analyze the SSR markers closer to Saltol QTL of the chromosome 1 to be used in rice breeding and gene mapping studies.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, from April 2013 to October 2013.

Study Design: Morphological traits were analyzed by ANOVA and polymorphic bands obtained from SSR markers were analyzed by Jaccard’s similarity coefficient following the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA).

Methodology: Morphological traits of twenty rice germplasm of Sri Lankan origin, including traditional and improved varieties were assessed under 12 dS/m saline stress and five SSR markers located between 10 -15 Mb  to Saltol  QTL were analyzed in relation to salinity tolerance.

Results: A novel weighted indicator, Salinity Survival Index, revealed that Goda Wee, At354 and Al Wee varieties were highly salinity tolerant compared to the tested varieties including an accession of Pokkali and the morphological traits also showed the same validation. Diversity analysis of SSR marker alleles linked with Saltol QTL clustered the salinity tolerant and salinity susceptible germplasms as compatible with the distribution pattern of salinity survival index and the marker, RM1287 was more informative for the screening of rice germplasm for salinity tolerance.

Conclusion: Information derived on morphological traits under salinity stress and the polymorphic SSR marker patterns obtained from tolerant and susceptible varieties near Saltol region would be useful in selecting parental lines from the tested varieties for rice breeding and gene mapping programs designed for salt tolerance

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Palestinian Colored-table-grape Cultivars by Means of Morphological and Pomological Descriptors

R. Basheer-Salimia

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/19468

Palestine is a treasure chest of plant genetic diversity that hosts a large variety of plants including grapevines. Unfortunately, this diversity is challenged dramatically due to different biotic and abiotic stress resulted thereby in the disappearance of many local grapevine cultivars. The aim of this work was a multidisciplinary characterization, documentation and conservation of Palestinian colored-table-grapes. A detailed morphological and pomological (16 plant and leaf as well as 23 fruit) informative descriptors were used to assess genetic diversity and detect similarities and variations among 19 assumed cultivars collected from the southern region of West-Bank, Palestine. Examined different traits of plant, leaf and fruit (bunch, berry and panel) revealed various result patterns in which more than 80% of these traits presented great divergent genotypes and therefore, they could be potentially incorporated to both local and regional breeding programs. Based on the UBGMA Jaccard’s similarity index and the constructed dendrogram, distinguishable genotypes as well as some cases of synonymies and homonymies clearly exist. A synonymy case seemed to be in two genotype-pairs which indeed showed genetic distances of less than 0.32 and 0.35 suggesting their close relatedness (possibly genetically identical). In addition, homonym cases also occur in the following pairs of “Halawani, Betuni’s, Fhesi, Roomi’s and Shami’s genotypes, in which each pair seems to be two distinctive genotypes. Based on our similarity results, number of local colored-table-grape genotypes might reduce which thereby, saving time and efforts for any future breeding program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Components of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) and their Relationships with Root Yield

S. U. Yahaya, A. M. Saad, S. G. Mohammed, S. O. Afuafe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/20078

Aims: To assess the extent of the relationships of various growth and yield related characters. To evaluate the direct and indirect contributions of these characters to root yield, a basis of selection for further improvement.

Study Design: Field Experiment, in Randomized Complete Block Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Teaching and Research Farm of Bayero University, Kano (11°58’N and 8°25’E) and Agricultural Research Station Farm, Minjibir (12°11’N and 8°32’E) located in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria between July-October, 2014.

Methodology: Sixteen (16) sweet potato advanced lines: Centennial, AYT/08/055, TIS8164, TIS87/0087, NRSP/12/097, UMUSPO/2, UMOSPO/1, SOLOMON1, EA/11/022, EA/11/025, EA/11/003, UM/11/015, NRSP/12/095, UM/11/001, UM/11/022, and a local check (Kantayi idda) were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were collected on number of leaves per plant, vine length, vine weight, number of roots per plant, average root weight and the root yield. Simple and partial correlations between root yield (Y), growth and yield components (X) and within the growth and yield components themselves were worked out.

Results: Root yield was found to be significant (p<.01) and positively correlated with number of leaves per plant, number of roots per plant and average root weight. Vine length was negatively correlated to average root weight and root yield, whereas number of roots per plant was positively correlated to the average root weight and root yield. The path analysis also revealed that average root weight registered the highest direct contribution to root yield. The highest indirect effect on root yield also came from the number of roots per plant via the average root weight.

Conclusion: The average root weight contribution to root yield was much higher than those of vine length and vine weight both directly and indirectly. Thus, emphasis should be given towards increasing the average root weight and number of roots per plant as criteria and basis of selection of sweet potato for higher root yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Temporal Variations for Intercropping Maize and Sesame in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

G. O. Kolawole, A. B. Babalola, E. O. Akinola, T. F. Fadahunsi, A. T. Ajibola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/20453

Aim: The experiments were conducted to determine effects of time of introducing sesame into maize or vice versa on the performances of the intercrops.  

Study Design: Randomized complete block design replicated four times.

Place and Duration of Study: Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria in 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons.

Methodology: The treatments were (i) Sole Sesame (0 week) (ii) Sole maize (0 week) (iii) Sole Sesame – established 2 weeks later (iv) sole Maize – established 2 weeks later (v) Maize/Sesame (0 week) (vi) Maize/Sesame (sesame introduced into maize after 2 weeks) and (vii) Sesame/Maize (maize introduced into sesame after 2 weeks). The test crops were sesame (Sesamum indicum) variety E8 and Maize (Zea mays) variety ACR-9931-DMR-SR-Y. Five sesame plants were randomly selected per plot and tagged for collection of data on plant height and podding nodes. At maturity, maize and sesame were harvested and the grain yields determined. Sub samples of the grains were taken to the laboratory and analyzed for N, P, and K contents.

Results: Both years, simultaneous sowing of maize/sesame had no adverse effect on maize yield. Introducing sesame into maize two weeks later caused significant reduction in grain yield and NPK uptakes compared with sole maize. Simultaneous planting and introducing sesame into maize 2 weeks later reduced sesame seed yield by mean of 134.5 and 1392.5% respectively compared with sole planting. Based on calculated LER, intercropping maize and sesame was superior to sole cropping and such advantage was in the range of 16 to 85%.

Conclusion: Simultaneous intercropping maize/sesame had no adverse effect on maize yield but sesame was a weak competitor, therefore, for commercial cultivation sole cropping of sesame is recommended

Open Access Original Research Article

Disease Severity on Cabbage Protected from Arthropod Pests with Insecticide Treated Agronets in Kenya

J. J. Kiptoo, M. Kasina, L. Wasilwa, M. Ngouajio, T. Martin, A. Too, J. J. Cheboi, P. W. Nderitu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/20583

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetables in Kenya, mainly grown by smallholder farmers for food and source of income. Its production is hampered by insect pests and diseases, leading to economic yield losses. Row cover insect proof nets have been used in the past to manage insect pests of cabbage and were recently introduced to Kenya. This study planned to document disease incidence and severity levels on cabbage grown under insecticide impregnated Agronets as a tool to manage insect pests and microclimate. The study was conducted at KALRO-Kabete and PTC (Practical Training Centre)-Thika, Kenya both at the nursery and in the field. Treatments included 1) use of insecticide (alpha cypermethrin) impregnated Agronets with (0.9 mm mesh), 2) untreated 0.4 mm mesh Agronet, 3) grass shading as a farmer practice (at nursery) and 4) control where there was no Agronet use. The treatments had five replications in a completely randomized block design. Plots measured 2 x 6 m, with a 1 m path between consecutive plots and 2 m between consecutive blocks. Three major diseases were recorded: damping off (Rhizoctonia solani), downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris). Treatments showed significant (P<0.05) differences on severity of damping off, which was lowest on seedlings covered with Agronets compared with the other treatments at nursery. Comparably, the downy mildew disease severity was higher on seedlings covered with Agronets than those with no cover or shading at the nursery. The findings show that frequent disease scouting is crucial when using Agronets for cabbage pests management. This would allow farmers to take action when diseases are noticed. Further supportive studies to understand threshold limits that can trigger growers to employ disease control application may be needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical Efficiency of Chilli Pepper Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria

B. Mohammed, B. Ahmed, Z. Abdulsalam

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2015/20298

This paper deals with issues of improving technical efficiency and productivity of chilli pepper production in Kaduna state. It uses the stochastic frontier analysis approach for the estimation of production functions. The paper made use of a cross-sectional data between August and November 2014 crop season to obtain information from 200 chilli pepper farmers in the 3 local government areas of Kaduna State. The aims of this paper were to describe socio-economic characteristics of chilli pepper farmers and determine the technical efficiency of chilli pepper farmers in Kaduna state. Purposive and random sampling techniques were employed for data collection. The paper revealed that 37.5% of the respondents fall within the age of 30-39 years. The 53% had formal education. The household size ranged from 6-10 persons, majority of the farmers (72%) of chilli pepper farmers do not participate in any chilli pepper related cooperative association, and the result shows that 98.5% of chilli pepper farmers financed their production from their personal savings. The paper revealed that (58.5%) of chilli pepper farmers have extension visit; Results indicated that except for labour and agro-chemical, all other factors were significant              (P < 0.01, P >0.1). The mean technical efficiency is 90%. The findings of this paper revealed that none of the sample chilli pepper farmers reached the frontier threshold. Thus, within the context of efficient agricultural production, output can still be increase by 10% using available inputs and technology. It was therefore recommended that timely and adequate supply of fertilizer should be made available to farmers at affordable price in order to enhance chilli pepper production