Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Hoe-weeding and Pendimethalin Spray Regimes on Weed Management in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) in North Central Nigeria

Ademiluyi Benson Oluwafemi, Joseph Abiodun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/19988

Field trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research farm of Landmark University Omu-Aran during the cropping seasons of 2013 and 2014 to test the best time of Pendimethalin application in comparison with hoe weeding on weed management and performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.). The treatments were the weed management practices: Hoe weeding at 3 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP); Pre-plant Pendimethalin (3 days before planting, DBP); Pendimethalin at Planting; Post-plant Pendimethalin (2 days after planting, DAP) and weedy check control. Obtained results showed that Pendimethalin, irrespective of time of application showed no significant germination percentage reduction in comparison with the control or hoe weeding. All the Pendimethalin sprayed plots gave effective weed biomass reduction similar to those obtained from the hoe weeded plots. Higher yield factors in terms of number of leaves, number of branches, plant height, and pod weight per plant were consistently similar and highest in the Pendimethalin and hoe weeded plots. Irrespective of time of Pendimethalin application, similar values of number of pods per plant, pod length and number of grains per plot were obtained with hoe weeded plots which were higher than the control. Lower pod weight and grain yields were obtained in Pendimethalin at planting when compared with the pre-plant, post-plant Pendimethalin and hoe weeding which recorded the highest pod and grain yields. Establishment rate showed that Pendimethalin applied at planting and post-plant resulted into lower field seedlings count at 4WAP. It is concluded that Pendimethalin applied three days before planting gave effective weed control and produced the highest cowpea grain yield in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) Germplasm for Agronomic Traits in Vegetable and Seed Production: A Green House Study

Cecilia M. Onyango, Richard N. Onwonga, John W. Kimenju

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20209

Aims: Spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) is one of the most important traditional vegetables in Kenya, albeit underutilized.  Concurrently, scanty information is available on its potential for vegetable and seed production. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate spider plant germplasm for agronomic traits pertinent to seed and vegetable production.

Study Design: A complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Two greenhouse experiments were conducted at Upper Kabete Field Station of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, for a period of 180 days (March-August, 2014). 

Methodology: Twenty-five genotypes obtained from the Gene bank of Kenya and farmers’ fields were grown in 10 kg pots filled with a mixture of soil and cow manure at ratio of 1:2. Three seeds of each genotype were planted per pot and evaluated for days to seedling emergence, germination percent, leaf formation, days to flowering, days to pod formation, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and weight of 100-seeds.

Results: Seedling emergence, leaf formation, days to flowering, days to pod formation, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 100-seed weight varied significantly (P=.05) between genotypes. Nineteen out of 25 genotypes emerged within 5 to 7 days, time to flowering ranged between 30 days in GBK-045494, and 42 days in GBK-040449, GBK-032229 and GBK-032134.  Eight genotypes produced between 11 and 13 leaves per plant within six weeks. All the genotypes had a low (<50%) germination percentage.

Conclusion: GBK-040449, GBK-027212, GBK-032210 and GBK-032340 with; 4-7 days to emergence, >11 leaves per plant and ≥35 days to flowering are desirable for vegetable production, whereas, GBK-040449, GBK-045494 and SN 1 with ≥40 Days to pod formation, 6-9 pods per plant; ≥100 seeds per pod and 0.14-0.16g per 100-seeds are recommended for seed production. GBK 040449 was found to have traits suitable for both vegetable and seed production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Probiotics and Prebiotics on Haematological Indices, Serum Chemistry and Gut Salmonella Count of Broilers Sourced from Salmonella-infected Hatcheries in South-west Zone of Nigeria

R. A. Olorunsola, P. A. Akinduti, A. O. Oso, A. O. Akapo, D. Eruvbetine, M. A. Oyekunle

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20076

This study investigated the effect of dietary inclusion of probiotics and prebiotics against gut salmonella, haematological indices and serum biochemistry of broilers sourced from Salmonella infected hatcheries within south-west zone of Nigeria.

In this experiment, a total of 480 male, day-old broilers (Anak 2000 Strain) (160 birds from each state) were collected from hatcheries located in 3 different areas of south west Nigeria that were positive to Salmonellaorganisms and used for performance testing for 8 weeks. The birds were laid out in a 3x5 factorial arrangement comprising of 3 hatchery location fed diet supplemented with 5 different feed additives (no additive, antibiotics, mannose oligosaccharides, arabinoxylan oligosaccharides, Sim Lac®). Data were collected on blood, and gut salmonella count. Main effect of location showed that total serum protein, white blood cell count, haemoglobin, uric acid and serum creatinine were highest (P<0.05) for broiler starter sourced from Location 3. All broiler starter fed diet supplemented with different additives had reduced (P<0.05) white blood cell, uric acid concentration, increased (P<0.05) serum glucose and albumin. Broiler starter sourced from Location 1 and 3 fed diet supplemented with varying additives had reduced serum uric acid concentration when compared to birds fed control diet. At the finisher phase, haemoglobin, red blood cell, serum uric acid and creatinine concentration were highest for birds sourced from Location 3. Finisher broilers fed diet supplemented with varying additive had increased (P<0.05) serum albumin and reduced (P<0.05) serum uric acid concentration. Finisher broilers sourced from location 3 and fed diet supplemented with additive had reduced (P<0.05) white blood cell count, serum uric acid and increased (P<0.05) serum albumin when compared with group on control diet. In all the phases of the study, gut salmonella reduced drastically with inclusion of various additives. Birds fed diet supplemented with mannas oligosaccharide showed the least gut salmonella count. Mannose oligosaccharides and arabinoxylan oligosaccharides could be used as replacement for antibiotics to improve performance and control the prevalence of Salmonellaorganism in broiler chickens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Parasitism Efficacy and Development of Effective Field Release Technique for Trichogramma spp. (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera)

Z. J. Chowdhury, S. N. Alam, C. K. Dash, M. A. Maleque, A. Akhter

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20734

To determine the parasitism efficacy of Trichogramma spp. on the host eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) and Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) and to develop the effective field release technique for Trichogramma spp., the study was conducted at the IPM Laboratory and Research field of Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh during the period from July to December 2013. Higher parasitism on the eggs of S. cerealella and C.cephalonica was recorded from Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) (85.5%, 93.8% respectively), compared to those of Trichogramma evanescens West (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) (83.4%, 92.7% respectively). Higher percent adult emergence was recorded from the eggs parasitized by T. evanescens compared to those by T. chilonis. The field release techniques for T. evanescens and T. chilonis on parasitizing the eggs of S. cerealellaC. cephalonica and Leucinodes orbonalisGuenee (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) were also assessed by using paper strip method (released during pupation) and adult release method in both micro-plot and open field conditions. In micro-plot, the results showed that T. evanescens parasitized 75.5% of host eggs (mean of three host eggs) by adult release method and 38.83% only by paper strip method. In case of open field condition, T. chilonis parasitized 78.6% of host eggs by adult release method and 40.2% only by paper strip method. The results indicate that as a field release technique of T. chilonis, the adult release method is superior to paper strip method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Facultative Apomixis in Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) through Emasculation Method

L. S. Fayeun, D. K. Ojo, A. C. Odiyi, A. M. Adebisi, L. A. Hammed, A. O. Omikunle

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/15261

Apomixis is seed and embryo formation without fertilization. A study was carried out from August, 2012 to May, 2014 in order to investigate the possibility of occurrence of apomixis in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F.) using emasculation method. Five genotypes of fluted pumpkin were used. Ten plants from each genotype were planted out in a screened environment at the department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure. The crop being dioecious, all the male plants were emasculated (by total removal from the site) as soon as they were noticed, leaving only the female plants. Seeds obtained from the fruits of isolated female plants were later subjected to viability test. After several weeks of flowering, flowers and developing ovaries abortion, they eventually set fruits. All the genotypes produced fruits (one or two) though at different times. Both apomictic and parthenocarpic fruits were produced. The seeds obtained from the apomictic fruits of all the genotypes had high seedling emergence percentage and good seedling vigour. Apomictic fruits, seeds and seedlings were similar to those of sexually produced fruits. The observed facultative apomixis could be as a result of natural selection. This study confirms that apomictic form of reproduction occurs naturally in fluted pumpkin. Facultative apomixis in the fluted pumpkin is being reported for the first time and its implication in the genetic improvement of the crop is discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Performance and Differential Response of Micro-propagated Potential F1 Genotypes of Gerbera jamesonii

S. Singh, Raja Ram, Somu Kaundal, Akhil Sharma, Ashok Kumar, D. Dhyani

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20653

Aims: To evaluate gerbera hybrids with respect to mass propagation under in vitro conditions and their characterization under field conditions for floral traits for selection of promising gerbera lines for commercial utilization.

Study Design: Field performance and differential response of micro-propagated gerbera were evaluated in randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: CSIR-IHBT, Palampur (HP), India 2012-2015.

Methodology: F1 genotypes of gerbera were developed through controlled crossing program and subjected to in vitro micro-propagation to achieve quick multiplication. Mature seeds obtained from different cross combinations were used for the establishment of in vitro gerbera cultures. Seeds were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal medium and the developing micro-shoots from seeds were further cultured on MS media supplemented with different doses of growth regulators to achieve shoot proliferation.

Results: Highest number of micro-shoots, number of leaves and leaf length were observed in M3 proliferation medium (MS supplemented with 1mg/l 6- Benzylaminopurine + 0.030 mg/l Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) + 0.025 mg/l Naphthalene Acetic acid) which gave best proliferation among the gerbera genotypes. The half strength MS medium supplemented with 0.4mg/l IBA was found best for in vitro rooting. Also, there was differential response of hybrid gerbera genotypes to micro-shoot proliferation.

Conclusion: Characterization of two hybrid F1 genotypes (23-1 and E-3) under field conditions with respect to floral traits in comparison to parental genotypes provided information about new gerbera lines with high micro-propagation potential for commercial utilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response and Nutrient Utilization of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles Fed Differently Processed Sunflower (Helianthus annuus Linnaeus) Seed Meal-Based Diets

A. E. Falaye, A. E. Falaye, S. E. Olusola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-111
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/6207

A 10-week feeding trial was conducted in 15 plastic tanks (60 × 45× 30 cm) to assess the performance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed diets containing sunflower seed meals processed by different techniques. Five diets were formulated at 40% crude protein content containing no sunflower meal (control) or 50% soybeans and 50% sunflower meal. The sunflower seed meals were processed using four methods: (a) Boiled Sunflower Seed Meal (BSSM); cooked, oven-dried and ground, (b) Roasted Sunflower Seed Meal (RSSM); roasted, cooled and ground, (c) Mechanically-Extracted Sunflower Seed Meal (MSSM); screw-pressed, oven-dried and ground and (d) Solvent-Extracted Sunflower Seed Meal (SSSM); de-oiled, air-dried, oven-dried and ground. Each treatment was done in triplicate contained 20 fish (mean weight 30.01±0.01 g and length 12.31±0.30 cm). Fish were fed twice daily at 5% of their body weight. Fish fed the BSSM diet performed better (p<0.05) than those fed others processed sunflower meal diets and the control diet. Clarias gariepinus fed BSSM had significantly higher mean weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, gross feed conversion efficiency and nitrogen metabolism of 52.16±2.83 g, 0.62±0.09 g, 0.47±0.02, 212.77±0.02 and 2155.50±0.04 respectively of all the treatments. The processed sunflower seed meals recorded significantly higher (p<0.05) values of mineral composition (sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus) compared to the control. The result from this study indicated that BSSM diet can partially replace soybean meal in the diets for C. gariepinus without compromising growth or nutrient utilization.