Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Climate Variables on Major Cereal Crops Production in Sokoto State, Nigeria

M. B. Sokoto, L. Tanko, L. Abubakar, A. U. Dikko, Y. M. Abdullahi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20020

Agriculture largely depends on climate. Hence, climatic factors such as precipitation, solar radiation, wind, temperature, relative humidity solely determine distribution of crops and their productivity. Changes in temperature and precipitation directly affect performance of the crops. The objective of the study is to examine the impact of climatic factors (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature on cereals production in Sokoto state, Nigeria. Secondary data from 1997-2008 were used in respect of annual yield of Major cereals crops (Maize, Millet, Rice and Sorghum (t ha-1). Data in respect of climate was collected from Sokoto Energy Research Centre (SERC) for the period under review. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis. The result of the research reveals that there is variation in the trend of the climatic factors and also variation in cereals output. The effect of average temperature on yields has a negative effect on crop yields. Similarly rainfall is not significant in explaining the effect of climate on cereal crops production. The study has revealed to some extend the effect of climatic variables, such as rainfall, relative humidity, maximum and minimum temperature on major cereals production in Sokoto State. This will assist in planning ahead in cereals production in the area. Other factors such as soil fertility, correct timing of planting and good cultural practices (such as spacing of strands), protection of crops from weeds, pests and diseases and planting of high yielding varieties should also be taken in to consideration for increase yield of cereals.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of Different Sewage Sludge Concentrations on Soil and Cultivated Raphanus sativus L

G. M. B. Bohm, R. M. Karsburg, C. Heidrich, E. M. Bohm, R. C. O Machado

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/21730

Sewage sludge is a residue rich in organic matter and nutrients important for plant growth and soil fertility, but it may contain in its composition heavy metals that can result in toxicity to the plant, soil and humans when used as fertilizer. The objective was to assess microbial activity and heavy metal residues in soil and radish tubers grown with different concentrations of sewage sludge. Carbon microbial biomass, total organic carbon, soil basal respiration and zinc, copper, chromium and lead levels in soil and radish tubers were analyzed. According to the results, application of 30 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge promoted higher microbial activity and lower metabolic quotient, and resulted in 490 tili-1 of microbial carbon and 11.12% of soil organic carbon. Heavy metal contents in radish tubers were 266.15, 2.82 and 15.42 mg kg-1 of zinc, chromium and lead, respectively, with the lead content found in the samples were above the maximum extent permitted recommended by the Codex Alimentarius.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Price Efficiency of Catfish Grow-out in Nigeria

O. A. Adeogun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/21691

The objective of this was to estimate the price efficiency of catfish grow-out production in Nigeria using parametric stochastic frontier and cost functions. A sample of 143 fish farmers using flow through system were purposively selected from the twenty Local Government Areas in the State for the interview. Data regarding input-output relations and socio-economic properties of farms were collected for the production season of 2012-2013. Price efficiency measures were derived for this sample by employing parametric stochastic frontier analysis (SPF). Finally, socio-economic factors affecting efficiency levels are estimated with a Tobit estimation procedure. The analysis shows that the mean price efficiencies are found to be 36.0%, 70.0% and 62.08% for plastic, fibre and concrete tanks respectively. These scores indicated that the inefficiencies in fish production are not trivial for farmers using concrete and fibre but trivial for plastic indicating considerable allocative inefficiency. Analysis of the role of various socio-economic factors on productive efficiency shows that the size of the farm, age, education, experience and machinery were found to be important determinants of price efficiency. A policy implication of this study is that there are more potential for farmers to increase fish production and net profit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arabidopsis thaliana Reaction in Response to Cadmium and Trichoderma Fungi Additive into the Soil

Magdalena Marchel, Edmund Hajduk, Janina Kaniuczak

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20479

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the substrate inoculation (silty soil) using Trichodermagenus fungi on cadmium phyto-availability and process of photosynthesis disturbances at Arabidopsis thaliana. The two-factor experiment was established, in which the 1st variable factor was the presence or absence of Trichoderma genus fungi in the substrate, while the 2nd order factor was the growing amounts of cadmium in the soil. During the vegetation, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were carried out. After the experiment complete, the cadmium content was determined in aboveground parts of Arabidopsis thaliana.

The cadmium doses incorporated in the silty soil (2, 10, 30 mg Cd/kg DM soil) did not cause any significant disturbances within the photosynthetic system of Arabidopsis thaliana. Only Fv/Fm parameter values showed some deterioration in the photochemical efficiency of PSII. Cadmium content in the aboveground parts of plants increased along with the soil contamination by this metal, both with and without addition of Trichoderma genus fungi. However, plants growing on soils with lower doses of cadmium (2 and 10 mg Cd/kg) with Trichoderma genus fungi addition, contained less of the element than those with no fungi addition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Missing Elements (NPS) on Chemical Properties of Soil and Nutrient Uptake of Rice Var. BRRI dhan29

R. Talukder, M. A. Aziz, M. Biswas, M. A. Kashem

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20282

An experiment was conducted at the BRRI Regional Station, Habigonj, Bangladesh during December 2012 to May 2013 (dry season) to study the effect of missing elements (NPS) on the soil properties and nutrient uptake of rice var. BRRI dhan29. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experiment consisted of six treatments viz., N85P35K50S9, P38K50S9 (-N), N85K50S9 (-P), N85P38K50 (-S), K50S9 (-NP) in kg/ha, and N0P0K0S0 (control). Results indicated that elements N, P and S either missing alone or in combination with each other significantly affected the chemical properties, nutrient concentration and nutrient uptake of BRRI dhan29. Grain and straw yields were highest with N85P38K50S9(8.31, 9.71 t ha-1) and the lowest with K50S9 (-NP) (4.76, 5.30 t ha-1). Soil chemical properties changed such as available P and exchangeable K as compared to initial soil due to missing elements treatments and other remained similar. Nutrient contents and nutrients uptake were the highest in the treatment N85P38K50S9. The results revealed application of balanced fertilizer @ N85P38K50S9  was better (among the treatments) for obtaining higher grain and straw yield; and nutrient uptake of rice var. BRRI dhan29.

Open Access Original Research Article

Density and Cultivar Effects on the Biomass and Crop Growth Rate of Upland Rice in Uyo Southeastern Nigeria

O. S. Aderi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20597

Aims: To evaluate population densities and cultivars on the biomass and crop growth rate (CGR) of upland rice and their correlation with grain yield.

Study Design: A Factorial on randomized complete block design.

Place and Duration of Study: The Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, between May 12, 2009 and September 30, 2010.

Methodology: Six sowing densities; 1,600,000, 1,066,666, 800,000, 640,000, 533,333, and 2,054,435 plants ha-1 were combined with five cultivars of rice; FAROs 43, 46, 55, 56 and a local cultivar – Otokongtian. Treatment combinations were replicated three times. Destructive samples were collected at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 weeks after sowing (WAS), oven-dried at 80°C to constant weight and the biomass and CGR determined. Data were analyzed with Genstat Discovery Edition 4 and means compared by Fisher’s protected least significant difference at 5% probability.

Results: Rice biomass for 2,054,435 and 1,600,000 densities increased significantly (8.77-12.55 and 7.08-11.44 g m-2) at 3 WAS in 2009 and 2010 respectively (P=.05). Biomass increase was highest at 15 WAS across densities and cultivars in both years. FARO 46 produced the highest significant biomass in both years during the period but was replaced by Otokongtian at 15 WAS. At 3-6 WAS, 2,054,435 produced the highest significant CGR in both years (5.83 and 5.193 g m-2 day-1 for 2009 and 2010 respectively), while FARO 43 had the highest CGR during the period. Higher densities produced higher CGR. The CGR continued to increase across densities and cultivars up to 9-12 WAS and began to decline at 12-15 WAS. There was a positive correlation between rice biomass, CGR and grain yield.

Conclusion: Higher sowing densities produced higher rice biomass and CGR which correlated positively with grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Guava + Pineapple Two Tier Cropping System under Rain-Fed Ecosystem of Jharkhand Province of India

B. R. Jana, M. K. Meena

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/21560

Aims: In the present agricultural scenario in India, the major thrust is to increase crop productivity with judicious fertilizer application so as to ensure sustainability in crop like fruit production system. Eastern plateau region of India provides ample opportunity for fruit cultivation in monoculture or multitier cropping under rain-fed ecosystem and mulching as moisture conservation.

Study Design: In this production system, Guava L-49 was collected from our own farm where as Pineapple Kew was procured from state farm of Jalpaiguri (West Bengal) India. A field trial with two crops with four level of fertilizers and three levels of mulching was laid out in Split-plot Design and ANOVA’s were calculated.

Place and Duration of Study: From three years study (2008-2010) two tier cropping system of guava + pineapple has become promising and profitable to the farmer of ICAR-RCER, Ranchi region for its early returns with crop diversification. This was the first kind of growing intercrop pineapple with guava simultaneously from very beginning at Research Centre, Ranchi in India. 

Methodology: 10 fruits of guava and 4 fruits of pine apples are taken as a replication sample. TSS was measured by ATAGO digital refractometer, total and reducing sugar was measured by Lane and Eynon method. Available soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potash were estimated by Alkaline KMNO4, NaHCO3extraction and NH4OAC extraction methods, respectably. Organic carbon in the soil was estimated by Walkley and Black method whereas soil EC and pH were analyzed by 1:2 soil water suspension method.

Results: Study revealed  that F3 fertilizer treatment i.e., 100% pineapple and 50% recommended fertilizer dose of guava along with local weed mulching accounted for maximum fruit production 3.6 q pine apple +3.2 q guava  from one acre  in the third year (2010). Plastic mulching induces early flowering and improve fruit quality regarding total sugar to both of the crops. The highest total soluble solids (TSS) 13.8° B in pineapple crop are observed in third year and the maximum TSS of 12.2°B was recorded in winter guava and total sugar per cent was 6.92. Fruit quality of rainy season guava did not differ significantly among treatments.

Conclusion: Development of Guava + Pineapple two tier cropping system provided the maximum production of fruits crops from marginal land. Local weed mulching increases high sugar content of both the fruits but plastic mulch causes early flowering. F3 treatment (100% recommended fertilizer dose of pineapple and 50% recommended fertilizer dose of Guava) resulted in higher production of both the crops with local weed mulching and sufficed nutrients to guava in intercropping system.