We obtained honey from the blooming flowers of tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) pollinated by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Functional amino acids, theanine, which is a unique ingredient to tea, was determined using reversed-phase chromatography. We also determined the main ingredients: Caffeine and catechins. The obtained honey contained theanine, which shows that it was derived from tea flowers. The theanine concentration of the nectar of the tea flowers exceeded that of the honey. Caffeine was detected (but no catechins) in both the honey and the nectar of the tea flowers. Our results refute the previously held view that tea nectar is toxic to honeybees. Our new finding reveals that it is possible to obtain honey from the nectar of tea flowers.
Biological control agents are known to reduce the effect of plant pathogens and also reduce the environmental hazard caused by the persistent use of synthetic chemicals. In this study the effect of Trichoderma asperellum and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices were observed on young okra seedlings infected with the same concentration of disease causing microorganisms; Pythium aphanidermatum and Erwinia carotovora. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of biocontrol agents against okra seedlings infected with Erwinia carotovora and Pythium aphanidermatum. The experiment was conducted in the green house of the faculty of Agriculture, Ile- Ife, Nigeria. Different combinations of these microorganisms were observed on the growth performance of Okra seedlings. Okra seedlings were planted in the nursery for 2 weeks and 3 weeks respectively before they were transplanted into pot of 17 cm by 17 cm filled with sterilized soil. Inoculums concentration of 10-8CFU/ml of each micro- organism and 30 g of AM were introduced to the root zone of the young seedlings during transplanting from nursery tray to the growing pots according to the designated treatments and each treatment was replicated thrice. The same procedures were used for 3 weeks okra seedlings. The effects of micro-organisms were observed using plant growth parameters such as; stem girth, number of leaf, stem height and leaf area. The result shows that the bio-control agents reduced the negative effect of the pathogen on the young seedlings and Glomus intraradices enhanced the development of plant parameters. The organisms had a lesser synergistic effect on each other due to their high requirements for metabolic product of plant but produced more antagonistic effect on the pathogenic micro-organisms. In conclusion, Glomus intraradices and Trichoderma asperellum could be effectively used as bio-control agents to reduce the effect of Erwinia carotovora and Pythium aphanidermatum on young Okra seedlings
This work was conducted to investigate whether Chlorophyll Fluorescence (CF) sorting method enhanced the seed germination and vigor (mean germination time) of stored (aged) commercial seed lots of four different pepper cultivars. Seeds were stored hermetically for 6 and 12 months at -18, 5 and 25°C with 8.0±0.2% of seed moisture. Laboratory germination and mean germination time were determined on stored and CF-sorted and unsorted seed subsamples. Results indicated that CF-sorting significantly increased laboratory germination (p<0.05), and reduced mean germination time (p<0.05). CF-sorted seeds from fractions with low CF had higher germination performance than unsorted ones. It can be concluded that CF as a non-destructive sorting technology has the potential to upgrade the quality of stored, aged pepper seed lots.
A ten-week two stage experiment consisting of starter and finisher broiler feeding trials was conducted with one hundred and eighty Marshal broiler chicks to determine the replacement value of water soaked Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel meal as a substitute for maize. Sweet orange peels were divided into five equal parts, and a part each soaked in water for a duration of 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, sundried and milled to formulate five (5) test diets T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively, in which the peel replaced maize in the control diet (T1) at 40% inclusion levels one hundred and eighty birds were randomly allocated to the six dietary treatments each of which had three replicates of ten birds each in a completely randomised design. Significant increases (P<0.05) were observed in feed intake, live weight, body weight gain, water intake while, significant decreases (P<0.05) were observed in feed conversion ratio, water: Feed ratio and mortality of starter broiler as duration of soaking of orange peels increased from 0 to 96 hours. In the finisher phase, significant increases (P<0.05) were observed in feed intake, live weight, body weight gain, whereas, water: Feed ratio decreased significantly (P<0.05) as duration of soaking of sweet orange peel increased from 0 to 96 hours. The study has shown that sweet orange peel when soaked for 96 hour can be used as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken diet at 40% levels while, longer soaking duration is further investigated.
Small scale agriculture is the dominant occupation of rural Nigerians. Federal government of Nigeria over the years introduced and implemented several policies and programmes aimed at improving agricultural production. In light of available agricultural potentials the First National Fadama Development project was designed in the early 1990 s to promote simple and low-cost improved irrigation technology under World Bank Finance. The wide spread adoption of the technologies enabled farmers to increase production by more than 300% in some crops. This was followed by Fadama II.
The study was designed to assess impact of fadama II project on agricultural production of the farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 120 respondents were purposively selected for the study. Interview schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents and this was subjected to correlation and student t-test analyses. Among the socio-economic characteristics included in the study, only sex (r = 0.285, p = 0.002) and type of agricultural activities (r = 0.224, p = 0.031) have significant relationships with agricultural productivity. There is a significant difference (t = 6.442, p = 0.000) between the productivity of fadama participants and non-fadama participants.
It is therefore recommended that fadama project should continue in Nigeria and that all farmers should be included in the project as this will enhance sustainable food security and improved agricultural production in Nigeria.
The availability of phosphorus (P) in derived savanna soils differs among soil types and the effect of amelioration on the soil P are site specific. The study was conducted to determine the effect of P fertilization and poultry manure on the distribution of P in some derived savanna soils. The greenhouse experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R & T), Ibadan. The treatments consisted of five rates of poultry manure (0, 5, 15 and 20 t ha-1) and five rates of phosphorus (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kg P ha-1) applied as single superphosphate (SSP) and this was replicated three times. The soil was cropped with maize and there were two cycles of cropping. Organic P was the largest extractable P fraction while Al-P and Ca-P fractions were the least extractable P fraction. The inorganic P fractions (Fe-P, Al-P, Ca-P, reductant soluble P and residual P) all increased in the soil series. Although there were more of increases in the P fractions in the second greenhouse studies, some treatments reduced the P fractions. Application of 30 kg P ha-1 of SSP with different rates of poultry manure was effective in increasing the total P and Fe-P fractions in Temidire series while it was the combined application of 45 kg P ha-1 of SSP with different rates of poultry manure in Apomu series.
Aims: This study is to evaluate the growth performance, flock uniformity, feather weight, carcass characteristics and economic indices of broilers fed low protein diets fortified with synthetic lysine.
Study Design: All data generated were subjected to analysis of variance in a complete randomized design.
Place and Duration: The experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, between November and December 2014.
Methodology: One hundred and eighty unsexed Abor Acres strain day old broiler chicks were used in a seven-week feeding trial. Five experimental diets were formulated. Diets 1 and 2 were negative and positive control respectively with 22.23% crude protein while diets 3, 4 and 5 contained 18.2% each at the starter phase and 17.8% at the finisher phase. They all had recommended level of methionine with varying levels of synthetic lysine inclusion ranging from 0.40% in diet 1 to 0.65% in diet 5 at the starter phase and 0.40 to 0.60% at the finisher phase.
Results: The result indicated that birds on diet 3 with 18.26% crude protein (CP) and high lysine inclusion had a higher (P<0.05) daily gain and least feed to gain ratio at the starter phase, although, the birds on low protein diets had a numerical increase in feed intake but weight gain decreased as the lysine inclusion increased beyond diet 3. The fortification with lysine resulted in a least cost input but an increased profit, economic efficiency of growth, live weight and thigh.
Conclusion: From this study, the objective of the poultry farmer to achieve optimum production with least input is possible using a low crude protein diet supplemented with lysine. This will result in increased profit, economic efficiency of growth, live weight and thigh size.