Open Access Short Research Article

Growth Performance, Hematology and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chicks Fed Diets with Varying Energy Levels

O. F. Akinmoladun, G. E. Onibi, K. O. Babalola, A. T. Lomuwagun, A. F. Fabode

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/13931

Three hundred and eighty-four unsexed Anak broiler chicks raised from day-old to 28 days of age were used to evaluate the effects of different dietary energy levels on their growth performance, hematology and carcass characteristics. The experiment was of a completely randomized design (CRD). The diets for the starter were isonitrogenous. There were 3 dietary energy treatments (2786.80, 3015.40 and 3252.20 kcal/kg) and 4 replicates per treatment with 32 chicks per replicate. Birds were randomly selected and slaughtered for carcass and hematological analysis. The feed intake and live weight of the birds were determined weekly. Birds fed the 3252.20 kcal/kg energy diet had the highest (P<0.05) final weight, average weight gain and total weight gain. The lowest (P<0.05) Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was recorded for birds fed the 3252.20 kcal/kg energy diet. The Packed Cell Volume (PCV), though not statistically significant, increases linearly with increase in dietary energy. Birds fed diets containing 3252.20 kcal/kg energy recorded the highest (P<0.05) abdominal fat, gizzard and eviscerated weight. The results, however, indicated that the cost of feed per unit weight gain was lowest in High energy diet followed by Optimum and Low energy diets respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Stability Models in Measuring Stability of Common Bean Varieties

Nigussie Kefelegn, Firew Mekbib, Yigizaw Desalegn

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/13918

Plant breeders have been challenged with genotype by environment (G x E) interaction to develop high yielder and stable varieties. They have been using different univariate stability models to simplify the challenge. The major ones are coefficient of variation (CVi), absolute rank difference (Si1), variance of rank (Si2), σi2, Wi, bi, Si2d, Pi, ASV and r2. This study was designed in order to increase information on the associations and reliability that might exist among stability models. The study was carried out on 15 common bean varieties replicated three times at Kobo, Sirinka, Jari, Chefa, Shewarobit and Kogo in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 in Ethiopia. A combined analysis of variance, stability statistics and rank correlations among stability parameters and yield were determined. The varieties differed significantly for seed yield at P = 0.001. The different stability parameters were categorized into three types. Based on the correlation analysis SY, CVi (type I), Pi, (type II), bi and r2 (type III) were strongly correlated. Moreover, Si1, Si2 (type I), Wi2, σi 2(type II), Si2d and ASV (type III) were correlated at P = 0.01. On the other hand, SY with CVi and Pi; CVi with bi and r2; bi with Pi; Pi with r2 were correlated negatively at P = 0.01 while r2 with Si1, Si2, Wi2and σi2 were moderate and negatively correlated. Coefficient of determination (r2) had strong association with eight of the stability parameters. AMMI Stability Value (ASV) and deviation from regression (Si2d) had also strong association with five of the models. Consequently, they can explain stability of varieties better following coefficient of determination. Thus, bean breeders can use those three stability models for better explanation and interpretation of G x E interaction of varieties/genotypes. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Copper (II) on the Sorption/Desorption of Chlorsulfuron in Five Wheat Growing Regions of the Mara River Basin, Kenya

Joanne A. Ogunah, Philip O. Owuor, Chrispin O. Kowenje, Joseph O. Lalah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/21528

Aim: To study the effect of copper ions on the sorption and desorption of chlorsulfuron in five, wheat growing soils from Mara River Basin, Kenya.

Study Design: The experiments were laid down in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Control experiments were carried out using soils without history of application of chlorsulfuron.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Maseno University and Center of Analytics, Jülich Research Center from April 2014 to May 2015.

Methods: Adsorption of chlorsulfuron (0.625–15mgl−1) in the presence of Cu2+ (0, 50 and 100 mgl−1) was studied using batch sorption method. The data fitted well on the Freundlich adsorption equation. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis was done to one soil to show the mechanism of sorption on soil.

Results: Chlorsulfuron was sorbed on the soils with adsorption coefficients (Kf) ranging between 0.51 and 1.49. Increasing Cu2+ concentration increased the sorption of chlorsulfuron in all the five soils. This was possibly due to decreased equilibrium solution pH and formation of Cu-chlorsulfuron complexes which were preferentially sorbed via the carboxylic and hydroxylic functional groups of the soil. Moreover, Cu2+decreased hysteresis effects on desorption of chlorsulfuron.

Conclusions: The increase in sorption of chlorsulfuron in the presence of Cu2+ could suppress the bioactivity of the herbicide. However Cu2+ decreased hysteresis effects on desorption of chlorsulfuron implying that more of sorbed chlorsulfuron can be released to the soil solution. This will increase the leaching potential onto the lower profiles and surrounding aquatic systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Irrigation Water Requirement of Maize Crop for Different Tillage Practices in Bangladesh

Md. Mashiur Rahman, Md. Golam Ambia Mahmud, Hossain Md. Ferdous, Naznin Sultana, Abu Sayed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/21654

A study was conducted to assess the irrigation water requirement of maize crop for different tillage practices. Irrigation water was applied at three-growth stages viz. treatment one (I1), 20-25 days after sowing (DAS), treatment two (I2), 45-50 DAS and treatment three (I3), 80-85 DAS. Under I1 irrigation treatment with zero (T1), minimum (T2) and traditional (T3) tillage practices, the seasonal water requirement was 26.3, 29.3 and 31.0 cm respectively. In I2 treatment with T1, T2 and T3 tillage practices, water requirement was 34.5, 37.5 and 42.5 cm respectively and in I3 treatment with T1, T2 and T3 tillage practices, water requirement were 46.3, 51.3 and 60.0 cm respectively. The highest yield was in I3 treatment (8.3 t ha-1) which was similar to I2 treatment (8.2 t ha-1) and the lowest was in I1 treatment (7.3 t ha-1). In this study, no significance different was found in I2 and I3 treatment but in I3 treatment required more 42 cm water than I2. From the economical analysis, the highest net return (USD/ha 1501.45) and the highest benefit cost ratio (3.1) were found in T2I2 treatment combination. Therefore, T2I2 (minimum tillage with two-time irrigation) treatment combination is the best suit for maximum water resources saving in maize cultivation without compromising with yield in Bangladesh at dry season (Rabi). 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Storage Conditions on Rapeseed Oils Quality

Grzegorz Dąbrowski, Marta Skrajda, Małgorzata Tańska, Beata Roszkowska

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22101

Aims: The aim was to determine the impact of various storage conditions on the stability of rapeseed oil, which determines the content of free fatty acids, peroxides, aldehydes, conjugated compounds and fatty acid composition.

Study Design: Storage experiment was performed in 6 months period; Quality of oils was analysed using standard methods. Fatty acid composition of oils was determined using gas chromatography. The data were analysed using Statistica v. 12.5 software.

Place and Duration of Study: Chair of Food Plant Chemistry and Processing, Olsztyn, Poland between December 2014 and July 2015.

Methodology: The material consisted of 24 commercial samples of rapeseed oils. Samples were stored in brown glass bottles for six months in different conditions - in the dark at +20°C, in a refrigerator at +4°C, and in a freezer at -20°C. The quality of rapeseed oil was determined by measuring the acid value, peroxide value and anisidine value. The fatty acid composition and the content of conjugated dienes and trienes were also analyzed. 

Results: In control samples cold pressed oils were characterized by the highest acid value and the lowest anisidine and peroxide values. Cold pressed oil samples stored at -20°C had the highest acid value (an increase by 9.21%); however, unlike fresh oils, they also had the highest peroxide value (an increase by 5.17%). The greatest increase in the content of saturated fatty acids during storage was noted for refined hot pressed oils (6.33%). A permanent trend was an increase in the share of monounsaturated fatty acids, and a decrease in the share of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The share of MUFAs increased most following storage at 20°C for refined hot pressed oils (9.38%), and pressed and extracted oils (9.35%). In the same samples, the greatest decrease in the content of PUFAs also occurred by, respectively, 30.78% and 31.22%.

Conclusion: Higher temperatures are more conducive to oxidative changes in oils, which are indicated by higher values of all the analyzed distinguishing quality features of oils. Refined oils are more susceptible to these changes as in the process of purification a number of substances with antioxidant properties are removed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Selected Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) Genotypes for Resistance to Insect Pest Complex in Dry Areas of North Rift Valley, Kenya

J. J. Cheboi, P. K. Kimurto, M. G. Kinyua, O. K. Kiplagat, B. K. Towett, J. J. Kiptoo, S. C. Kirui, S. Kimno, N. V. P. R Gangarao

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22216

Pigeonpea is an important pulse crop that has gained importance in semi-arid tropics, although its yield potential has not been fully realized due to biotic and abiotic stresses that limit its production. Insect pest complex of pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera), sucking bug (Clavigralla tomentosicollis) and pod fly (Melanagromyza cholcosoma) are the major limiting factors to its production causing up to 100% yield loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate resistant genotypes to insect pest complex in dry parts of North Rift Valley Kenya. The study was carried out in three sites (Kenya Agricultural Livestock Research Organization- Marigat, Agricultural Training Centre-Koibatek and Fluorspar-Chepsirei) for one season during long rain of April-November 2014 growing season. Sixteen ICRISAT elite genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 75cm inter and 25 cm intra spacing. Significant (P≤0.05) differences in grain yield performance, incidence and severity of the insect pests were revealed in all sites. The damage was more severe in Marigat (Pod borer-37.2%, Sucking bug-39.3% and pod fly-5.9%) than ATC- Koibatek (Pod borer-1.9%, Sucking bug-8.4% and pod fly-5.9%) and Fluorspar (Pod borer-3.6%, Sucking bug-6.8% and pod fly-2.9%). Genotypes ICEAPs 00850R, 00902, 01541 and 1154-2 showed potential levels of resistance to the insect pest complex and high yields. Grain yield associated negatively (P≤0.05) with pod borer and sucking bug damage correlated non-significantly with pod fly damage. The potential genotypes identified in this study need to be further evaluated in two seasons and in other multi-locations to validate these findings to be used in breeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Nigeria Processed Chicken in Kwara State

A. G. Adeyonu, E. O. Oyawoye, E. F. Fabiyi, A. O. Owolabi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22416

Despite the ban on importation of frozen poultry products in Nigeria, about 1.2 million tonnes unwholesome products are been smuggled into the country annually. This practice is impacting negatively on the health of the citizenry and local producers continue to face daunting obstacles posed by activities of smugglers. This study analyzed the factors influencing urban households’ Willingness To Pay (WTP) for Nigeria Processed Chicken (NPC) in Kwara State. Data used for the study were obtained from 274 respondents using the multi-stage sampling techniques. They were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Probit regression. From the study, it is seen that the majority of the respondents (54.7%) were fairly educated with mean year of schooling of 12.97. About 34.7% and 13.9% of the respondents had below ₦50,000 and above ₦200,000 respectively as their total monthly income. The result indicates that over 80% of the respondents claimed that NPC was not readily available while the mean distance to sales outlets stood at 3.21 km. The probit estimation of willingness to pay increased significantly with education and income and decrease with distance to sales outlets. It was recommended that policies that will enhance respondents’ purchasing power should be pursued in order to encourage them to pay for Nigeria processed chicken. Also, the creation of more sales outlets for NPC should be considered.