Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of Total Protein Content and the Ratio of Sugar-Protein in Dry Matter of Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis Variations Depending on the Type of Soil

J. J. Sosnowski, K. Jankowski, P. Domański

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22110

The study was conducted to determine the effect of soil type on total protein content and the formation ratio of sugars to proteins in dry matter varieties of cocksfoot and tall fescue. The experiment was arranged and conducted according to Research Center for Cultivar Testing guidelines. The experimental plots were sown with varieties of Dactylis glomerata: Niva, Tukan, Amila, Crown Royale and with varieties of Festuca pratensis: Limosa, Pasja, Anturka, Amelka. The plots were randomly selected, 1.5 meters wide and 6.67 m long, with an area of 10 m2, grouped in blocks with four replications. They were separated by 1 meter pathways between blocks and with 0.5 meter pathways between sub-blocks. The pathways lay fallow. The experiment in Krzyżewo (organic soil) was set up on ploughed soil, with spring barley as the forecrop. In Uhnin (mineral soil) the experimental plots were located on peat meadow. The airy dry matter was shredded and ground. The obtained material was subjected to chemical analysis to determine dry matter (by determining moisture content), protein compounds and simple sugars. The method of determination was near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using a NIRFlex N-500 spectrometer and readytouse INGOT calibration applications. Regardless of variety, cut and years of research, higher total protein content occurred in dry matter of cocksfoot grown on mineral soil (165 g∙kg-1 DM) than organic (172 g∙kg-1 DM). Higher values of sugar-protein ratios characterized biomass of varieties of meadow fescue (0.50) than cocksfoot (0.85). Regardless of the examined grass species, better nutritional value had the plant varieties located on mineral soils than organic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Qualitative Aspects of Tomato Fruits under Leaf Fertilizer Applications with Resistance Bioinducers

Rener Luciano de x de Souza Ferraz, Jane Lima Batista, Marcelo de Andrade Barbosa, Durvalina Maria Mathias dos Santos, Fernando Oliveira Franco

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22347

The tomato is one of the cultures of great interest to the global agribusiness, especially to meet the industrial demand, resulting in income and quality of life to the producer. Given the complexity of culture, new technologies and management strategies are necessary. Hence, this experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the productivity and qualitative aspects of tomato fruits under leaf fertilizer applications with resistance bioinducers. The experiment was conducted in the field in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of T1 = Control and T2 = Leaf fertilizer + resistance bioinducers, with four replications. Productive aspects and quality of fruits for the industry were evaluated, and these aspects expressed through the variables, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant, fruit average weight, fruit weight yield, longitudinal and transversal diameter, mesocarp thickness and fruit shape, total soluble solids and hydrogenionic potential. The treatment with leaf fertilizers based on Ca, Mg, B, S, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn together with yeast hydrolyzate and humic acid bioinducers promoted significant increases in tomato production and fruit size, not altering, however, the qualitative aspects of these.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Dietary Properties of In-shell Pine Nuts (Pinus pinea L.) and Kernels

Fatih Sen, Kamer Betul Ozer, Uygun Aksoy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22464

Aims: This study aims at determining physical and chemical properties of Turkish pine nut shells and kernels over a time span. Besides, changes in composition and nutritive value of the pine nut are evaluated according to the prevailing climatic conditions.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted as completely randomized design, physical analyses were performed as three, and chemical analyses as two replicates per sample prepared.

Place and Duration of Study: Kozak District Agricultural Development Cooperative and Ege University of Department of Horticulture in Izmir, Turkey, between July and August in three crop years.

Methodology: Pine nut (Pinus pinea L.) shell samples (Pinus pinea) were obtained from Kozak District Agricultural Development Cooperative. The sampling is based on sub-sampling in-shell nuts from 50 kg bags in July and August. 20 subsamples were collected from different bags and 24, 27 and 36 aggregate samples (~ 3 kg) were prepared annually.

Results: The in-shell nut quality displayed yearly differences in terms of cracked and defected nuts cracked varying between 17 and 43% and defects ranging between 2 and 4%. The pine nut kernel composition was determined as moisture 4.64%, water activity 0.452, ash 4.19%, fat 45.8%, protein 31.98% and carbohydrates 13.16%. Potassium, phosphorus and magnesium were the predominant elements. Kernels are also rich in iron and zinc. Oleic and linoleic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids (85.4%), while palmitic and stearic acids the as saturated fatty acids (9.8%).

Conclusion: The results confirm that pine nut kernels produced in Kozak area are a rich source of many important nutrients having positive effect on human health compared to other Mediterranean pine nuts origins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Performance of Breeder Rabbits Fed Diets with Graded Levels of Orange Pulp Meal as Energy Source

O. O. Effiong, L. E. Asuquo, B. E. Atiata

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22789

The study was designed to access the reproductive performance of breeder rabbits fed graded levels of orange pulp meal (OPM). The pulps were gathered, sun-dried and milled prior to proximate analysis and feed formulation. Four experimental diets were formulated to supply 18% crude protein and 2600 KcalME/kg of Metabolizable energy. Diet 1 was control, while OPM replaced maize at 20, 40, and 60% for diets 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Forty (40), eight weeks old rabbits (32 does and 8 bucks) of a crossed  between American chinchilla and New zealand white rabbits used for the experiment were weighed and distributed into four groups with ten rabbits ( 8 does and 2 bucks). Groups were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Animals were raised under the experimental condition until sexual maturity at five months. At sexual maturity, does and bucks of the same treatment were crossed, does kindled within thirty two (32) days. Four parities were obtained during the experiment. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means separated by Duncan’s multiple range test. The rabbits did not vary significantly in their mean daily feed intake but differed in their mean weekly weight gain. Does on treatment diets had significant higher average litter size at birth and average litter size at weaning. Average litter weights at birth and at weaning were statistically similar. The mortality was not due to treatment effect. It was therefore concluded that orange pulp meal could replace 60% of maize in the diets of breeder rabbits without adverse effect on reproductive performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Cropping Ratios of Maize (Zea mays)-Egusi Melon (Colocynthis citrullus) and NPK Fertilizer on Soil Productivity Rating of an Ultisol of Edo State in Nigeria

J. O. Ehigiator, E. J. Falodun, G. O. Iremiren, E. J. Airueghian

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2016/v10i62017

Three separate field studies were conducted at the Research Farm of University of Benin  in Nigeria to determine soil productivity index rating for ultisol in which seven cropping ratios of maize (MA) and egusi-melon (EM) Viz 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 1:2 and 1:3) were tested using four rates (0, 200, 400, 600 kg/ha) of NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer for experiments 1 and 2 and six rates (0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 kg/ha) of the fertilizer in experiment 3. The design of the experiment was factorial randomized complete block replicated three times. The soil productivity index rating (PI) was determined to measure the status of the soil for further productivity purposes after consecutive cultivations and harvests. The results showed that the highest nutrient depletion (with negative soil productivity rating) occurred in sole maize where no fertilizer was applied as opposed to maize plots treated with the fertilizer at the end of experiment 2. While in experiment 3, the highest nutrient rate was obtained in maize in ratios of 1:2 and 1:3 with egusi melon. Soil productivity ratings were all positive, either sole or intercropped with maize under the various cropping ratios, thus suggesting no nutrient depletion. It further suggests that egusi melon in mixture with maize does not require as much nutrient as maize does.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Integrated Nutrient Management for Mandarin Orange Production in Hot Humid Region of Bangladesh

M. H. M. B. Bhuyan, J. C. Sarker, S. M. L. Rahman, Masayuki Fujita, Mirza Hasanuzzaman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22580

The study was aimed at boosting up the yield and profitability of mandarin orange cultivation through integrated nutrient management. The experiment consists of six treatments laid out in a randomized complete block design. Data were recorded on growth, yield, quality and profitability. All the parameters were influenced by different integrated nutrient approaches. Growth, yield and qualitative parameters were found to be influenced by different nutrient management options. Plants received 60% of their required nutrients as per soil test basis from chemical fertilizer and 40% from Cow dung (T4) were found best with yield and qualitative parameters along with highest marginal rate of return. Hence, this may be a wise and economic choice for farmers, producing mandarin orange var. BARI Manderin-1 in hot humid tropical region of Bangladesh.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Anti-nutritive Constituents of Unprocessed Jack Bean (Canavalia ensiformis) (L) (DC) Seed Meal on Poultry Performance

K. E. Akande

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/21980

Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) is a good source of plant protein as well as a starch-storing seed and on the basis of the apparent nutrient content, it should be an extremely useful ingredient in animal feeds. The use of untreated Canavalia ensiformis seed as a feedstuff for poultry is restricted due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, as is the case with the other tropical legumes. The anti-nutritional constituents of Canavalia ensiformis have been reported to include tryspin inhibitors and concanavalin A which are heat-labile and canavanine and canaline which are hydrosoluble. Other antinutrients are saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, and phenols. Canavalia ensiformis seeds can be used as an animal feed ingredient since they are a good source of starch and protein. However, in order to be used as animal feed ingredient, Canavalia ensiformis seeds would have to be thermally processed. Heat processing is universally accepted as an effective means of inactivating most, if not all of the heat-liable toxic constituents of legume grains. Research has showed that dietary inclusion of detoxified jack bean seed between 20-30% in feed ration is capable of supporting the growth of poultry birds without adverse effects on performance and physiological parameters of the animals. Several research works had been carried out on how to improve the quality of legumes. These researchers have reported many processing methods. Interestingly, on many occasions, in order to achieve complete inactivation or detoxification of these anti-nutritional factors a combination of two or more processing methods may be needed.