Open Access Original Research Article

Degradation of Crude Oil by Indigenous Edible Mushrooms

Olutayo M. Adedokun, A. E. Ataga

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20396

Aim: The ability of three indigenous fungi, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet, Pleurotus tuber-regium(Fries) Singers and Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer to degrade Crude oil polluted substrate over a period of 15 weeks was investigated. The aim was to assess the extent to which each of the fungi could degrade the hydrocarbon profiles of the crude oil for further use in myco-remediation.

Place and Duration: The research was carried out at the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port-Harcourt between March 2005 and September 2005.

Methodology: The spawns of the three mushrooms were used to inoculate polluted substrate. At 5 weeks intervals for a period of 15 weeks, samples were removed and analyzed for remnant hydrocarbon.

Results: Oil degradation by the three fungi was observed at different rates. P. pulmonarius degraded crude oil (Aliphatic Hydrocarbon profile (AH) by 51.8% after 10 weeks; 87.4% after 15 weeks and 62.7% after 10 weeks; 71.2% after 15 weeks (Polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbon profile (PAH)). P. tuber –regium degraded crude oil by 31.1% after 10 weeks; 73.7% after 15 weeks (AH) and 16.1% after 10 weeks; 51.9% at the end of 15 weeks (PAH). Also L. squarrosulus degraded crude oil by 11.0% after 10 weeks; 50% after 15 weeks (AH) and (PAH) by 5.7% and 57.0% after 10 and 15 weeks respectively.

There was significant difference (p≤0.05) in substrates inoculated with fungi, but no significant difference in the control which was not inoculated with fungi.

Conclusion: The tests mushrooms are potential myco-remediation agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Sweet Potato Propagules for Re- infection by Various Viruses in East Kamagak Location – Homa Bay County-Kenya

Rosally A. Onyango, Wilson M. Thagana, Laura Karanja, Joseph Joseph Onyango-Gweyi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2016/v11i12091

Sweet potato, Ipomea batatas (L) Lam is an important subsistence food crop as well as cash crop in East Kamagak location and is also very popular in the major cities in the country including Nairobi. Sweet potato is easily managed with fewer field management practices compared to other root crops and it can similarly be stored for a prolonged length of time in the soil before harvesting. However sweet potato production is constrained by virus infection. At least 13 viruses are reported to infect sweet potato naturally of which most of them are insect transmitted. The study aimed at screening and selecting virus free germplasm. A survey was conducted in East Kamagak using questionnaire which aided in germplasm collection. Twelve genotypes were used for the study. The collected germplasm was virus indexed using visual scoring with severity of infection ranging from 1-9, serological and molecular detection. During the survey SPFMV and SPCSV were found to be common. Virus-free accessions were planted using Randomized Complete Block Design in three replicates. Harvesting was done 180 days post planting. The germplasm was again subjected to molecular detection of virus to ascertain whether the materials remained virus free and to detect new infections. All the germplasm tested positive for sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) but negative for SPMMV, CMV, SPCSV and SPCFV an indication that SPFMV is a common virus in sweet potato and does not significantly affect sweet potato yield. Analysis of variance showed that Nyakowino, Nyawo, Zapallo and SPK004 total yield were significantly different at p< 0.05 with a range between 68.00-12.33.Sweet potato should be screened for viruses in commercial production.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Potential of Jack Bean (Canavalia ensiformis) as a Replacement for Soybean (Glycine max) in Broiler Starter and Finisher Diets

K. E. Akande

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22378

This research study was carried out to evaluate the utilization of treated jack bean meal (JBM) and to determine its replacement value for soybean meal in broiler diets. Jack bean meal was incorporated at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in both starter and finisher rations. A total of one hundred day old Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with two replicates in a completely randomised design (CRD). Parameters measured were daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, final live weight, carcass weight and internal organ weights. Gross examination of internal organs was also conducted. During 0-4 weeks of age, it was observed that as the level of JBM increased in the diets, there was significant (P<0.05) reduction in daily feed intake and daily weight gain among the dietary treatments. However, the feed conversion ratio was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. At the finishing phase of 5-9 weeks of age, daily feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) reduced as the inclusion level of JBM increased, while daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio showed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the control and other treatments, this observation may be due to tolerance of birds as they grew older. The experiment lasted for 9 weeks. Gross examination of the internal organs show no trace of macroscopic lesion, necrosis or haemorrhage among dietary treatments. Conclusively, it is possible to incorporate JBM up to 20% in broiler diet without deleterious effect on performance of broilers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability of Yield Related Traits and Gene Interaction on Tomato (Lycopersicon escullentum Mill.) in Yola

S. J. Louis, E. M. Enang, S. Y. Simon, M. I. Jatto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20434

Field experiments were conducted to estimate the combining ability and nature of gene action governing inheritance of characters in tomato (Lycopersicon escullentum Mill) under high temperature stress. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Department of Crop Production and Horticulture Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. (latitude 9° 181 N and long 12° 151 E) and the Teaching and Research Farm of Adamawa State University, Mubi (latitude 10° 031 N and long. 13° 07E) all in Adamawa state of Nigeria. Fourteen entries consisting of six parents and eight croses developed by crossing two males (testers) and four females (lines) following line x tester design were evaluated in three replications in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in two locations. Ten plants were randomly sampled for recorded observation. Data were collected from the following characters; Trichome count, plant height at 60DAT, number of leaves per plant at 60DAT, number of fruits per plant, weight of fruits per plant % damaged fruits and number of days to final harvest. Data were subjected to biometrical analysis. Result of the analysis of variance indicated highly significant difference for all characters among entries except weight of fruits per plant. The result suggested the presence of genetic variability among the tomato genotypes under study. Significant difference were observed in the combining ability analysis of variance in all the agronomic characters under study except for trichome count suggesting both additive and non-additive genetic effects were important in  governing  this characters under study with more preponderance of additive effects. The cultivars, Cherry, Currant, UC28B, and RomaVF were identified as the best general combiners and the best yielders in terms of number of fruits per plant with appreciable tolerance to heat damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Effects for Maize P Efficiency Traits in Acid and Non-acid Soils of Western Kenya

Ouma E. Ochieng, Gudu Samuel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/21893

Soil acidity is a major constraint to maize (Zea mays L.) productivity in tropical soils due to toxic levels of aluminium (Al) and phosphorus (P) deficiency. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the genetic effects of certain traits associated with phosphorus efficiency in maize (ii) compare the genetic control of maize P efficiency traits in acid and non-acid soils. Six F1 single crosses derived from acid soil tolerant and susceptible lines were used in this study. The parental inbred lines, the F1’s, F2’s, BC1P1, BC1P2, from each of the six crosses were evaluated in two low P acid and two low P non-acid soils in Kenya. Mean genetic effect (m), additive genetic effects (a), dominant genetic effects (d) and epistatic digenic effects (aa, ad, dd) were computed for Shoot dry matter (SDM), Root Length density (RLD), P content (PC), P utilization efficiency (PUE) and P efficiency (PE). For most of the traits, greater variation was accounted for by dominance followed by epistatic and additive genetic effects in both acid and non-acid soils. Means for all the traits studied were significantly higher at high P conditions (36 kgP/ha) in non-acid soils compared to acid soils for all the generations. Both RLD and PE exhibited higher means under non-acid soils compared to acid soils under both P conditions. Mean heritabilities were generally higher in non-acid soils compared to acid soils. There was higher reduction in PE in acid soils (25-50%) compared to non-acid soils (15 to 30%). The magnitude of both additive and non-additive gene effects were always greater in non-acid compared to acid soils pointing to the effects of soil acidity on gene action. The inheritance of major PE traits did not differ in acid and non-acid soils even though soil acidity affected the magnitude of the gene effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) as Influenced by Chicken Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers

M. E. Essilfie, J. Ofosu-Anim, K. H. Dapaah, J. C. Norman, E. T. Blay

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22440

Aims: To assess the growth, yield and yield components of two varieties of sweetpotato as influenced by chicken manure and inorganic fertilizers.

Study Design: The experimental design was a 2 x 8 factorial arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates for both seasons.  

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted at the multipurpose crop nursery of the University of Education, Winneba, Mampong-Ashanti from September, 2011 to January, 2012 (minor season) and from April to August, 2012 (major season).

Methodology: Two sweetpotato varieties (Okumkom and Apomuden) and eight fertilizer treatments [(i) 10 t ha-1 chicken manure (CM), (ii) 30-30-30 kg/ha NPK, (iii) 15-15-15 kg/ha NPK +   5 t ha-1 CM, (iv) 30-45-45 kg/ha NPK, (v) 15-23-23 kg/ha NPK + 5 t ha-1 CM, (vi) 30-60-60 kg/ha NPK, (vii) 15-30-30 kg/ha NPK + 5 t ha-1 CM and (viii) No fertilizer (control)] were studied.

Results: Okumkom differed significantly from Apomuden in number of leaves per plant, number of branches and vine fresh weight in both seasons. Apomuden grown on 30 45-45 kg/ha NPK and 30-30-30 kg/ha NPK produced significantly higher number of marketable tubers and total tuber yield during the minor season. Tuber length and number of marketable tubers of Apomuden was significantly influenced by the application of 15 – 30 – 30 kg/ha NPK + 5 t ha-1 CM during the major season. Correlation analyses in both seasons show that the vegetative characters were significantly and positively correlated. On the other hand, number of leaves per plant was negatively correlated to the total tuber weight, marketable tuber number and marketable tuber weight.

Conclusion: Farmers are encouraged to grow Apomuden on 15-30-30 kg/ha NPK + 5 t ha-1 CM for high marketable tuber number in both seasons. For high vegetative biomass as fodder for animals farmers are to grow Okumkom in both seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Human Urine-compost Mixture on Some Soil Fertility Properties, Yield and Shelf-life of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon)

O. O. AdeOluwa, C. O. Aworuwa, O. E. Ogunsanyac

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/19823

Human urine, especially if combined with composts, could be a good source of fertilizer for improving soil fertility and ultimately, crop production. Thus, the focus of this study was to evaluate the influence of human urine-compost mixture on post-harvest soil fertility quality, yield and shelf-life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon). The study had six fertilizer treatments: urine, compost, compost: urine - 1:2, compost: urine - 2:1, NPK 15-15-15 and the Control (no soil additive) laid in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD), with four replicates. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The treatments were applied at the rate of 90 kg K ha-1 and the effects on soil fertility status, number of fruits, fresh and dry weights, as well as shelf-life were observed, using tomato as the test crop. The urine treated soils had the highest (P<0.05) number of fruits (16.50 fruits plant-1) at the end of the first planting. At the end of the second planting, urine treatment had the highest mean dry weight of 141 kg ha-1tomato fruits, while NPK 15-15-15 resulted into the lowest yield (70 kg ha-1). Thus, human urine-compost combinations 1:2 or 2:1 nitrogen are recommended as alternatives to mineral fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) for tomato production, for improved yield, shelf-life and soil fertility.