Two field experiments were conducted at two seasons at the University of Education, Winneba, Mampong-Ashanti campus to investigate the responses of the yield and root quality of two varieties of sweetpotato (Apomuden and Okumkom) to chicken manure and inorganic fertilizers and storage methods. The experimental design used for the experiment was a 2 x 8 factorial arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates in both seasons. The application of 15-15-15 kg/ha NPK+ 5t/ha CM and 15-30-30 kg/ha NPK + 5t/ha CM to Apomuden produced thicker vine diameter and dry matter accumulation respectively during the major season while Okumkom grown on 30-30-30 kg/ha NPK gave longer vine length in the same season. However, the application of amended treatments to both varieties decreased root quality (root crack) during the major season and increased pest infested roots during the minor season. Okumkom grown on 15-15-15 kg/ha NPK+ 5t/ha CM plot produced higher forked roots at harvest in both seasons. Okumkom grown on 30-45-45 kg/ha NPK and 30-60-60 kg/ha NPK plots had increased root sugar and starch content at harvest during the major season. Both varieties, whether treated or untreated had decreased starch content at 12 weeks in storage than at harvest in both seasons. Pit storage showed the most effective storage method in terms of root starch and sugar content in both seasons followed by ash and grass storage methods.
Field experiments were conducted during two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) on Sunflower (variety: BARI Surjomukhi-2) crop at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur and Agricultural research station, Banerpota, Satkhira, to estimate yield response factor (ky) and drought sensitivity index (λi) at various phenological stages and ky for entire cropping period. There were nine irrigation treatments including full irrigation, 80% and 60% of root zone deficit at three growth stages (vegetative, pre-flowering and heading stage), 100%, 80% and 60% of root zone deficit at two growth stages except heading; and 100%, 80% and 60% of root zone deficit at two growth stages except pre-flowering. Results reveal that the values of ky and λi increased with the increase of intensity of water deficit at different growth stages. There were no statistical difference in paired ‘t’ test for individual growth stages and entire growth period. Overall, the ky values in Gazipur for 20% water deficit at three growth stages were 0.13, 0.09, and 0.11, while for 40% water deficit were 0.16, 0.12, and 0.15, respectively. For Satkhira, the ky values were 0.10, 0.06, and 0.09 for 20% water deficit at three growth stages, while 0.13, 0.08, and 0.12 for 40% water deficit. The ky value for 100% water deficit at pre-flowering and heading stage were 0.23 and 0.16 for Gazipur, while 0.16 and 0.13 for Satkhira, respectively. At 20% water deficit, sensitivity index (λi) at three growth stages were 0.058, 0.021, and 0.048 for Gazipur, while 0.046, 0.019 and 0.036 for Satkhira, respectively. For 40% water deficit, λi values were 0.063, 0.029, and 0.053 at Gazipur, while, 0.06, 0.024 and 0.045 at Satkhira, respectively. The λi values for 100% water deficit at pre-flowering and heading stage were 0.12 and 0.10 for Gazipur and 0.069 and 0.06 for Satkhira. The highest ky values for entire growing period (irrigating 60% root zone deficit at vegetative and heading stage) was 0.54 and 0.64, followed by 80% and 100% of root zone deficit at vegetative and heading stageat Gazipur and Satkhira, respectively. This value was very close to 80% and 100% of the root zone deficit in terms of entire growing period ky value. Therefore, pre-flowering stage was the critical stage and irrigation should not be applied at 100%, 80% and 60% of the root zone deficit at vegetative and heading stage, rather it should be applied at 80% and 60% of the root zone deficit at vegetative and pre-flowering stage, respectively, for water limiting areas.
Flushing is the practice of increasing nutrient intake before and during breeding in order to increase ovulation and ultimately the number of lambs born (NLB). Although extensive research has investigated the impact of different feeds and feeding strategies on the flushing response, literature addressing the impacts of environment on flushing is limited. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to evaluate the responses of ewes to flushing treatments. A two-year study using two breeds of white-faced ewes was conducted at Montana State University’s Fort Ellis Experiment Station near Bozeman, MT. Two flushing trials were conducted to evaluate NLB per ewe, and BW (body weight) gain of ewes receiving 1 of 3 treatments: 1) control treatment; ad libitum access to pea-barley hay in drylot (CON), 2) ad libitum access to swathed pea-barley forage in paddocks (PAD), and 3) ad libitum access to swathed spring wheat straw in paddocks with 0.45 kg of supplement∙ewe-1∙d-1 (WHT). Trial 1 (28 d) evaluated yearling Targhee ewes and Trial 2 (14 d) evaluated mature Rambouillet ewes. For Trials 1 and 2, ADG (average daily gain), BW gain, lambing date, and NLB did not differ among treatments (P > 0.10). However, BW gain of ewes in PAD treatments was more variable than ewes in CON and WHT treatments for both Trials. Similar responses by ewes to feeding treatments suggest swath grazing as a viable flushing strategy to reduce inputs while maintaining high productivity.
The study examined allocative efficiency and its determinants among fadama food crop farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria using the stochastic cost frontier approach. A single-stage estimation procedure was used where socio-economic variables were incorporated directly into the estimation of the cost frontier model. Data were collected from 160 randomly selected fadama farmers in the state using stratified and purposive sampling techniques. The estimated coefficients of the stochastic cost function revealed that cost of land, cost of agro-chemicals and cost of seeds were statistically significant at 1% level, cost of hired labour and cost of water were significant at 5% level, while cost of inorganic fertilizers was significant at 10% level. The estimated coefficient of the socio-economic variables in the inefficiency cost model shows that farming experience, education and age increases allocative efficiency in fadama food crop production. On the allocative efficiency levels, the result revealed that the farmers were efficient in the allocation of resources in fadama crop production. However, there is a scope for allocative efficiency improvement in the short-run given the current state of technology of 21% and 58% for the average and least efficient farmer respectively. The study recommends the implementation of policies that would improve farmers’ access to credit, timely distribution of productive inputs, subsidization of cost of agricultural inputs and the encouragement of research in fadama food crop farming.
A field experiment was conducted to see the effect of cowdung, NPK and Rhizobium inocula on nodules number, yield contributing attributes and yield of summer mungbean (var. Binamoog-8), in acid soil at the farm of Agricultural Training Institute, Khadim Nagar, Sylhet from April to July, 2014. Seven treatments were viz. Control (without Rhizobium inocula and fertilizers), Cowdung (CD), CD+RI, NPK, NPK+RI, ½(NPK)+RI and Rhizobium inocula (RI). The rate of Urea-N, TSP-P and MoP-K were approximately 14, 14 and 17.5 kg ha-1, respectively. CD was around 8 t ha-1 and RI used approximately 45 g kg-1 seed. The randomly selected 5 plants were uprooted at four times in 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS) for nodules. The individual ripened pod was picked at 15 days interval from 45 to 90 DAS. Treatments had significant effects on all studied characters except percent sterile pods plant-1 at 75 DAS, number of seeds pod-1 and 1000 seeds weight (g). Sole application of cowdung around 8 t ha-1 performed better in growth character, yield contributing characters which influenced to produce higher seed and stover yield (705 and 2031 kg ha-1), respectively. The highest nodules number were counted when crop treated with CD+RI and ½ (NPK)+RI which did not reflect on crop productivity for suppression of N2 fixing capacity in acid soil. Application of Rhizobium in alone or with other fertilizers had no significant influenced in yield due to soil acidity with coarse texture. The heavy rainfall also limits the higher productivity.
Like many other developing countries, Pakistan has lower agricultural productivity. It is due to the reason that the farming community is almost illiterate and, has traditional and conservative farming practices. Adoption and diffusion of new technology at farm level is hindered due to these factors. This study aimed at estimating; technical, allocative and economic efficiency. The determinants of inefficiency for the wheat farms in district Layyah were also quantified. Data of 120 farmers for the crop year 2010-11 were used for the analysis purpose. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to find out the efficiency scores. Separate regression was used for these inefficiency scores for socio-economic and farm specific variables by using a Tobit regression model. The results showed that mean technical, allocative and economic efficiency of farms in the sample area was 84, 81 and 68 percent, respectively. Results of Tobit regression models showed that impact of years of schooling, access to credit, number of contacts with extension agents, and distance of farm from main road were negative and significantly affecting technical inefficiency of wheat farms. The farm size variable sign was negative and had significant impact on the allocative inefficiency. The coefficient of access to credit dummy variable was positive and had significant impact on allocative inefficiency. The coefficient of distance from main road was negative and significant which implied that as the distance of farm from main road increased the economic inefficiency will decreases. Quantified results urged the need of improvement in the agri-extension services, timely and proper availability of inputs, and establishment of local level markets at lower administrative units (like, town or union council) for the improvement of existing farming system.
Water induced salt stress among other abiotic stress is a main problem and decreases crop productions in arid and semiarid areas of the world. However, selection of salt tolerant cultivars by screening method in solution culture at vegetative stage is an easy and economical way to combat with salinity problems. The present hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate the salt tolerance of some newly approved and candidate cultivars of maize on the basis of gas exchange, growth and ionic traits. Three water salinity levels having different electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) were developed and fifteen maize cultivars were grown in Hoagland’s nutrient solution. The results depicted that the highest reduction in plant photosynthetic rate, K+ ion uptake and K+: Na+ under onset of salt stress was recorded in Sadaf, FH-963, FH-722 and FH-793 and the minimal in Sahiwal-2002 and Afgoi. Salt tolerant cultivars uptake less Na+ which depicted that Na+ ion exclusion is positively correlated with salt tolerance and plant photosynthetic rate. Biplot analysis method appeared valuable over conventional relative salt tolerance method due to its graphical evaluation of superior cultivars and grouping of cultivars in a particular environment in the biplot graph.