Open Access Short Research Article

The Use of a Protein Enhanced Surfactant to Increase Yield of Alfalfa

B. T. Sather, B. S. Goldstein

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/13561

Increasing human populations are creating challenges in food production and water management. Improving resource management with advances in technology is needed to meet these challenges.  Swift Wet® is a protein enhanced surfactant created by the Advanced BioCatalytics Corporation of Irvine, California. The liquid concentrate had been tested in various bench tests with successful results that merited a field level experiment that is presented in this article. It was shown to enhance the yield of an alfalfa crop in a sandy loam soil by 27.9% and 81.6% in test fields versus their respective control fields. Although there are several ways to improve the experiment further, the results of this study are encouraging. They support a conclusion that, in a sandy loam soil type, Swift Wet® can significantly improve yields of alfalfa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dry Mass of Shoot and Nodulation of the Pigeon Pea Fertilized with Reactive Rock Phosphate on the Oxisol

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Jakeline Rosa de Oliveira, Ellen Cristina Alves de Anicésio, Tonny Jose Araujo da Silva, Helon Hébano de Freitas Sousa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/23411

Among the most used crop stands out the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) that promotes biological nitrogen fixation, having the phosphorus a crucial role in this reaction. The objective was to evaluate the dry mass of shoot and pigeon pea nodulation, in function of phosphorus doses, using as source the reactive rock phosphate Bayovar in Oxisol in the Brazilian Cerrado. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for 72 days. Pots containing 3.5 dm3 of soil collected at a depth of 0.0 to 0.20 m in native Cerrado area were used. The experiment design was completely randomized, with seven doses of phosphorus (P2O5): 0,100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg dm-3 with four replications. Maximum dry mass of shoot production, dry mass of nodules, and number of nodules were observed in the doses of phosphorus (P2O5) of 430, 400 and 500 mg dm-3, respectively. The fertilization with reactive rock phosphate Bayovar increases the shoot production and nodulation of pigeon pea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Composite Cassava Root Meal, Palm Oil and Crayfish Waste Mixture as Substitute for Maize in Broiler Chicken Diet

E. E. Nsa, G. S. I. Wogar, I. A. Akpan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22340

Aim: To investigate the response of broiler chickens to diets containing levels of composite cassava root meal, palm oil and Cray fish dust (CCPCM) as replacement for maize.

Study Design: The experiment involved five treatments with three replicates per treatment in each of starter and finisher phases in a Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Calabar, Nigeria, between September 2014 and December, 2014.

Methodology:  Three hundred (300) one week old unsex broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments consisting of three replicates of 20 birds each. The control diet (T1) contained 56% maize which was replaced with 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CCPCM to form T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. The mixture was in such that it insinuates the maize in Crude Protein and Metabolisable energy (Iso-nitrogenous and Iso-Calorie). After 21 day of feeding the experimental meal, two hundred and forty of the birds were further re- randomized into 5 dietary treatments of three replicates. The control diet (T1) contained 60% maize and was replaced with 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CCPCM. The diets were all made to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric.

Results: The final live weight (FLW), weight gain (WG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not vary significantly  with the control up to 50%  at starter phase and up to 75% at finisher phase but above this levels they showed significant (P=0.05) depression. Feed intake at starter phase were significantly (P=0.05) affected only at above 50% replacement of maize with CCPCM while At the finisher phase the feed intake were not significantly  affected by the levels of CCPCM in the diets. Cost of feed per kg decreased while cost of feed per kg live weight gain increased (P=0.05) with increasing level of CCPCM up to 75% inclusion level.

Conclusion: It was concluded that 50% and 75% CCPCM could replace maize in broiler starter and finisher diets respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Stocking Density and Partitioning of Rearing Period on Growth, Feed Utilization and Production of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio Raised in Floating Cages

Luay M. Abbas, Nehad K. Wahab, Nader Abed Salman, Kareem J. Abu-Elheni

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/23361

The effect of stocking density and partitioning of raising period on growth and economic feasibility for common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated using four wooden floating cages (16 m3 per cage) at Tigris river, Southern Bagdad, Iraq during April to November 2013. Initial weight of fish ranged from 63.7 to 70.9 g. Four different stocking densities (25, 35, 50 and 70 fish/cage) were tried for two raising periods (4 and 8 months). The final weight of 1317.5 gm was obtained by fishes of the lowest density (25 fish/m3). The same group sowed the heights values for food conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.63, food conversion efficiency (FCE) of 0.38, survival rate 94.5%, daily weight gain of 4.99 gm/day and specific growth of 3.57% dayˉ¹. Fish production in the lowest density reached the highest annual return of 54.80% and the best rate of 1.54% among the benefits and costs competition with all other densities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineral Fertilization and Baking Value of Grain and Flour of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.

Tomasz Knapowski, Ewa Spychaj-Fabisiak, Wojciech Kozera, Bożena Barczak, Barbara Murawska

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/23452

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of varied nitrogen fertilization and foliar application of microelements (Cu, Zn, Mn and combined application of Cu+Zn+Mn) and the effect of their interaction on the grain yield quantity and some technological parameters of grain and flour of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. cv. ‘Rokosz’.

Study Design: The field experiment was established with the randomized split-plot method in three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Field study was conducted in two vegetation season (2012/2013, 2013/2014), at the Research Station in Minikowo near Bydgoszcz (53°10′2″ N, 17°44′22″ E) in Midwest Poland.

Methodology: The research factors were different levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg∙ha-1) and foliar application of microelements (Cu, Mn, Zn and combined application of Cu+Mn+Zn). The obtained grain yield from the plots was adjusted to the constant humidity of 15%. From each plot, representative grain samples were collected for determination of quality features i.e. falling number, protein content, wet gluten, sedimentation value, water absorption of flour and bread volume from 100 g of flour.

Results: The grain yield of spelt cv. Rokosz ranged from 4.25 to 7.51 Mg·ha-1. In the season 2012/13 each increase in N by 20 kg∙ha-1 resulted in a significant increase (from 10.7 to 29.5%) in the grain yield in relation to the control. In the second year of the study, increasing fertilization by another 20 kg N∙ha-1 caused a significant increase in yield (from 7.8 to 10.9%) as compared with the lower fertilization treatment. All quantity parameters of spelt increased significantly (compared to control) with the increase of nitrogen fertilization level (4.3 – 28.8% in the 2012/13 season and 11.7-95.4% in 2013/14) and micronutrients foliar application (1.4 - 8.0% in 2012/13 and 2.8 – 5.9% in the 2013/14 season).

Conclusion: Each increase in the nitrogen fertilization level caused an increase in grain yield of Triticum spelta L. cv. ‘Rokosz’. Separate and combined application of microelements resulted in a positive yield-forming effect as compared with the control. Varied fertilization with nitrogen and microelements significantly determined the values of the studied technological parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Phytophthora Leaf Blight of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) in the Semi Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

Joseph Adomako, C. K. Kwoseh, Moses Emmanuel, Larbi-Koranteng Stephen

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/23806

Aim: The aim was to assess the incidence, severity and symptoms of the leaf blight of taro.   

Methodology: A survey of 50 taro fields was conducted during the major cropping season of 2015 in 11 districts of the semi deciduous forest zone of Ghana. Disease incidence and severity were calculated and samples collected. Isolation, morphological identification and Koch’s postulate of the associated pathogen was carried out at the Plant Pathology Laboratory of the CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana.                                                                                                                  

Results: Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski, was identified as the causal pathogen of the leaf blight disease attacking taro. The study revealed a high incidence and severity of the disease across all locations surveyed. Incidence ranged from 30% in the East Akim District to 92.5% in the Tano South district whilst severity ranged from 6.5% to 86.5% in the East Akim and Tano North districts respectively. Disease incidence and severity was significantly different (P < 0.05) across the districts surveyed. Symptoms of the disease included multiple circular spots on the leave surface, white mycelia on lesion surface; shot holes on affected parts and water soak beneath the developed spots.

Conclusion: The current study revealed a high incidence and severity of the disease in the surveyed districts and has laid the foundation for extensive studies on the epidemiology of the disease in Ghana and the need to develop management strategies to reduce its impact.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Dried with Different Methods on Performance and Gut Microbial Population of Broiler Chicks

G. O. Adeyemo, I. J. Olowookere, O. G. Longe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24370

Effect of dietary inclusion of differently processed ginger on performance and microbial population of broiler chicks were investigated in a 52-days feeding trial. A total of three hundred one-day old (arbor acre) broiler chicks were used for the experiment, the birds were allotted into ten dietary treatments of five replicates and six birds per replicate in a 3x3 factorial arrangement of completely randomized design. Weights of the birds were taken weekly throughout the experimental period. Birds were fed ad-libitum such that diet 1 was the basal diet (BD) without ginger, diets 2, 3 and 4 were BD+ sundried ginger at 1, 1.5, 2% inclusion levels respectively, diets 5, 6 and 7 were BD+ air-dried ginger at 1, 1.5 and 2% inclusion levels respectively, diets 8, 9 and 10 were BD+ oven-dried ginger at 1, 1.5 and 2% inclusion level respectively. On day 52 of the experiment, the birds were slaughtered. Sections of the ileum was cut and aseptically emptied into a sterile bottle for microbial analysis.

Broilers fed diets containing ginger had no significant (P> 0.05) differences on the average initial body weight, average final body weight and average daily feed intake. Although the birds fed with diet containing oven-dried ginger at 2% inclusion level had the least (P>0.05) numerical difference of the average daily feed intake. The average body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significant across the dietary treatments. Birds fed diet without ginger had higher body weight gain and best feed conversion ratio (P<0.05).

The total Aerobic and coliform microbial counts of broilers were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. Although the total aerobic microbial count was reduced in birds fed diets containing ginger when compared with the control.