Open Access Short communication

Some Okra Production Decisions and Farmers’ Awareness of Meloidogyne species Infection in Two Agro-ecologies, Ghana

Y. Danso, C. Kwoseh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24455

A survey was conducted among okra farmers in two agro-ecologies (forest guinea savanna transition and moist semi-deciduous forest) of Ghana between August and December 2014, to assess their production decisions and awareness of the Meloidogyne species infection menace in okra. There were 240 respondents and more males (58%) than females (42%). Thirty nine percent (39%) of the farmers had no formal education and 48% had basic education. Approximately 56% had been cultivating okra for up to 10 years. Sixty four percent (64%) did not treat their okra seeds before sowing. Eighty five percent (85%) cultivated okra on commercial scale level (>3 acres). About 65% practiced sole cropping. Whilst 45, 79, 15 and 47% of the farmers responded positively to the Meloidogyne species infection awareness in okra in the Atwima Nwabiagya, Wenchi, Atebubu Amantin and Kintampo North Districts respectively, none was aware of the infection in the Ejura Sekyedumasi and Offinso North Districts. All, 61, 88, 86, 95 and 72% of the farmers in the Ejura Sekyedumasi, Kintampo North, Atebubu Amantin, Wenchi, Offinso North and Atwima Nwabiagya Districts respectively did not manage the infection. This was first survey study in exploring farmers’ awareness on Meloidogyne species infection in okra. Future studies need to be improved to include the nature of management strategies adopted if any to increase yields and reduce synthetic nematicides usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Chlorophyll Mutations in the Mutagenized Population of Two Cultivars of Vicia faba L.

Shahnawaz Khursheed, Samiullah Khan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/18875

Chlorophyll mutations form an important part of study during the mutation breeding experiments. During a mutation breeding experiment, a breeder has to screen chlorophyll mutations grown in a particular mutant population. This is important for a breeder to check the potency of a particular mutagen in inducing mutagenesis. Chlorophyll is an important pigment in plant for making food during photosynthesis. So, for a breeder it is important to check the optimum dose/concentration of mutagen in inducing chlorophyll mutations in addition to other parameters. The present experiment was conducted to develop and screen different chlorophyll mutations by single and combined treatments of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate. The screening of mutants was carried out in M2 generation of two varieties of Vicia faba L. viz., Vikrant and PRT-12. The seeds of both varieties were given individual doses/concentrations of gamma rays (100 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy), EMS (.01%, .02%, .03% and .04%) and their combinations (100 Gy + .01% EMS, 200 Gy + .02% EMS, 300 Gy + .03% EMS and 400 Gy + .04% EMS). The seeds were sown to raise the M1 generation. The M1 generation seeds were collected and sown in the next season to raise the M2 generation. M2 generation was screened for different chlorophyll mutations. Different chlorophyll mutations observed were chlorina, albina, xantha, viridis, aurea, tigrina and maculata. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations increased with increasing concentrations of both single and combined treatments. Combined treatments produced more chlorophyll mutations followed by individual concentrations/doses of EMS and gamma rays. Reason for higher frequency of chlorophyll mutants in combination treatments may be due to higher induction of mutations in genes controlling chlorophyll biosynthesis Both single and combined treatments induced more chlorophyll mutations in variety Vikrant than in variety PRT-12.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance, Digesta Viscosity and Microbial Load in Broilers Fed Diets That Contain 20% Wheat with Roxazyme G2G

B. R. O. Omidiwura, A. F. Agboolac

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24217

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are one of the potential factors reducing nutrient bioavailability in ingredients such as soyabean meal and wheat. Digesta viscosity, which is partly correlated with the modulation of gut can be reduced when wheat-based diets is supplemented with NSP degrading enzyme.

In a 42-day trial, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Roxazyme G2G supplementation on digesta viscosity, gut microbial load, gut pH, and length between October and November 2012 using 120 day-old broiler chickens fed wheat-based diets with or without enzyme supplementation. Brooding of birds was for 7 days after which they were randomly allotted into 3 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The diet consisted 4 replicates of 10 birds each. Body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency ratio were the growth performance indices measured. On day 42, birds were slaughtered and digesta samples from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and caeca were collected for viscosity determination and microbial load analysis. Length of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and pH were also measured.

The growth performance of birds fed wheat based-diet with enzyme was identical to those without enzyme and the control diet. Enzyme supplementation had significant (P =.05) influence on the gut microbial loads at different sections of the GIT. Birds fed wheat-based diets supplemented with enzyme had significantly lower microbial loads as compared with birds in other diets. The pH values obtained were slightly acidic (4.40 – 5.10) in birds on enzyme-supplemented diets across the different GIT sections.

Summarily, Roxazyme G2G resulted in improved gut pH, and reduced gut microbial loads in birds fed wheat-based diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Parameters for Fruits, Seeds and Oil Content Traits of Jatropha curcas L. in a Semi-arid Region of Senegal

Ibrahima Diédhiou, Youssouph Séwéhi Sambou, Moustapha Diéré Sagna, `, Pape Madiallacké Diédhiou

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/15139

Aim: The aim of this work was to study the genetic parameters of fruits, seeds and oil content of Jatropha curcas accessions in a semi-arid region of Senegal.

Methodology: The study was conducted on 35 accessions of J. curcas planted at the research station of National School of Agriculture located in Thies, Senegal. Fruits were collected from 1-4 years old plantations. Then, for each accession, 30 dry fruits were randomly selected and were subjected to measurements of the size parameters and weight. Fruits were peeled and shells weighed. A sample of 20 seeds per accession was selected with 3 replications for seed traits measurements and seed oil content by Soxhlet method.

Results: The results showed significant differences (p <.001) in seed and fruit traits as well as in oil content between accessions. Oil content, kernel weight/shell weight ratio and 100-seed weight are highly correlated quantitative characters which have also, high heritability broad sense (92.51%, 100% and 87.14%, respectively) and genetic advance values (39.32%, 36.44%, and 28.77%, respectively). Also, this study has highlighted four local accessions (Keur Samba Gueye, Notto 3, Ndary and Soutra) with high oil content (> 55%).

Conclusion: There is high genetic variability of Jatropha curcas in Senegal in terms of seed, fruit and oil traits. The quantitative characters such as oil content and 100-seed weight might be used for early selection of promising accessions. The local J. curcas plant materiel is interesting enough to perform breeding programs and support national sustainable production of biofuel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Econometric Analysis of the Economic Cost of Lethal Yellowing Disease (LYD) on Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Yield in LYD Epidemic Area of Nigeria: A Case Study of Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR)

Q. E. Osemwegie, M. A. Anyiwe, J. O. Odewale

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24003

Coconut is cultivated particularly in the Southern part of Nigeria mostly as economic crop. However, in recent years its production has been declining due to lethal yellowing disease (LYD). This poses a threat to coconut and its industry, and consequently to coconut growers in LYD epidemic zones. This study is aimed at ascertaining the economic cost of lethal yellowing disease on coconut (Cocos nucifera) yield in LYD epidemic zones in Nigeria. Data spanning 10 years, from 2000 to 2010 obtained from the records of Plant Breeding Division, Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) Benin City, Edo State were used for this study. Ordinary least squares (OLS) method was employed. The software used for analysis was Eviews7. Results obtained from the regression of the data indicate that expected annual yield of diseased palms (EAYDP) and price per unit nut (PUN) are significant determinants of economic cost of coconut production in the area and that LYD is a major threat to coconut production. It is recommended that preventive and control measures should be taken to reduce the incidence of LYD in epidemic zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacteria Associated with Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) From Ebute Iboro Location on Yewa River

J. K. Ekelemu, A. A. Akinyemi, O. O. Oyelakin, A. R. Oloyede, V. O. Agbasi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/19985

Bacterial isolates associated with Clarias gariepinus were collected from fish samples gotten on Yewa River in Ebute Iboro. The isolates were assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing method to identify the strains and to construct the phylogenetic relationship. The morphometric characteristics such as weight, standard length, total length and head length of fish samples were measured. Bacteria were isolated from the gills, skin and gut of Clarias gariepinius using spread plate method. The DNA of the bacteria isolates were extracted using CTAB method. PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA gene of isolates was carried out using universal primer for bacteria, purification of the PCR product using ethanol precipitation, thereafter sequenced using an automated DNA sequencer. The homologous of nucleotides was then searched at the gene bank of NCBI and the isolates were identified. The antibiotics sensitivity profile of the bacterial isolates was determined using disc diffusion method. Three main types of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp, Serratia sppand Aeromonas spp, were found dominantly on the skin. The sensitivity test showed that the identified bacterial isolates were sensitive to Ofloxacin (5 mg), Nitrofurantoin (300 mg) and Ciprofloxacin (5 mg) which can be used to treat the bacteria isolate to reduce its pathogenic impact on human and to reduce disease outbreak when cultured. The bacterial isolates were 100% resistant to Cefixime (5 mg) and Cefuroxime (30 mg).

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Evaluation of Some Fungicides against Botrydiplodia theobromae: Causal Pathogen of Pineapple Dieback

Eniola Omotola Oyedeji, Kehinde Titilope Kareem

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/23238

Aims: Dieback is an economically important disease known to cause major losses in food and tree crops. The causal pathogen of pineapple dieback was investigated and the efficacies of some fungicides were evaluated in-vitro.

Study Design: Pineapple suckers were planted with a spacing of 0.5 m x 0.5 m and separated by 1.0 m. Leaf and soil samples were randomly collected from diseased pineapple plants and the rhizosphere of the pineapple respectively.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the National Horticultural Research Institute field in 2014.

Methodology: The samples were inoculated on potato dextrose agar and pure culture of fungal pathogen responsible for pineapple dieback obtained. The efficacies of three fungicides namely: Z- force (a. i 80% Mancozeb), Forcelet (a.i 50% carbendazim), and Funguforce (63% mancozeb + 12.5% carbendazim) were tested in-vitro on mycelial growth inhibition of the causal agent.

Results: Pathogens isolated from diseased leaves were Botrydiplodia theobromae and Aspergillus nigerwhile Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Botrydiplodia theobromae and Fusarium verticilliodes were isolated from the rhizosphere. On the infected leaf samples, B. theobromae had the highest occurrence (93.3%) while Aspergillus niger had the least occurrence (6.7%). Similar trend was observed in the soil samples where B. theobromae had the highest occurrence of 80% while A. tamari and F. verticilliodes had the least frequency of occurrence of 4%. Pathogenicity test revealed that B. theobromae was the causal pathogen of pineapple dieback. The three fungicides evaluated were able to inhibition the mycelial growth of B. theobromae.