Open Access Short communication

Impact of Preceding Legume and Nitrogen Levels on Maize-preliminary Year Study

Fazal Jalal, Muhammad Arif, Mushtaq Ahmad, Sajjad Zaheer, Abdul Baseer, Noor Ul Baseer

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22538

An experiment on maize crop with preceding legumes and nitrogen levels were carried out at the Research Farm of Agronomy, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2011-2012 using summer legumes-maize cropping pattern. The summer legumes were sown in the summer gap (60-65days) for grain, fodder and green manure purposes. Mungbean for grain and cowpea for fodder purpose and Sesbania was for green manure purpose using fallow as control. After legumes experiment each plot was split into four sub plots to accommodate four levels of N (0, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1) for maize. Data were recorded on emergence, plant height, grains ear-1 and ear weight. Soil parameters after legumes; pH, total soluble salts (TSS), electrical conductivity (EC), and calcium carbonate (CaCo3) were not significantly affected by preceding legumes. Soil pH was higher in fallow plots while lower in plots previously cultivated with mungbean. Soil TSS, EC and CaCo3 were higher in plots previously sown with mungbean compared with fallow plots. All the parameters under investigation were significantly affected by nitrogen levels except maize seed emergence. In legumes the plots previously sown with cowpea and mungbean significantly affected grain per ear and ear weight of maize. Taller plants were produced in plots where N was applied at the rate of 150 kg ha-1followed by N application of 120 kg ha-1while control plots resulted in short stature plants. Plots fertilized with high N (150 kg ha-1) had significantly higher ear weight which was at par with N application at the rate of 120 kg ha-1. Higher grains per ear was recorded in plots treated with 120 kg ha-1 N which was at par with plots fertilized with 150 kgha-1N. Control plots resulted in fewer grains ear-1. It is concluded from the results that plot previously sown with legume performed better than fallow and the use of legumes in cropping system will be a good strategy for sustainability in feature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Consumer Behaviour and Economic Advancements of Gluten-free Products

Jolly Masih, Amita Sharma

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24737

Gluten-free food was among the top five most-searched words on Google in 2013. During past five years, “gluten” has steadily advanced in consumer online-search interest. Globally gluten free products were estimated to have a market potential of 4639.13 Million USD in 2015 and 7594.43 Million USD in 2020. Gluten-free foods were not only just a fad but a rising marketing section which had grown from a niche market to a main-stream market segment. It had immense potential specially in developing nations when its demand had been rising due to increase in awareness, product availability and number of cases being diagnosed. Regular use of gluten-free products was reported to have multiple health benefits like increased energy levels, reduced gas and bloating. Some major improvements were observed in patients of gluten sensitivity and autistic children. The gluten-free diet had become popular among celebrities and had gain media attention due to the claims of weight loss and boost in energy levels. Gwyneth Paltrow, Ryan Gosling and Jenny McCarthy were the celebrities who had adopted a gluten-free diet for health benefits. A detailed review study in this paper would facilitate understanding of trends, pattern, consumer preferences, market penetration and expansion strategies. This review paper would provide a detailed knowledge of leading sections of gluten-free foods and different factors affecting the buying behaviour of gluten-free foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Yield Attributes of Tomato as Influenced by Organic Fertilizer

Witness Mojeremane, Ofentse Moseki, Thembinkosi Mathowa, Gabatshele M. Legwaila, Sifanele ` Machacha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24630

A field experiment was established at the Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizer on yield and yield attributes of tomato from October 2014 to March 2015. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments being varying levels of organic fertilizer; 0 kg m-2, 5 kg m-2, 7.5 kg m-2 and 10 kg m-2 each replicated three times. The growth attributes measured were plant height, stem thickness, canopy diameter, number of leaves, fruits and fruit weight. Organic fertilizer application rates of 7.5 and 10 kg m−2 showed significantly (P = .05) taller plants from weeks 4 to 6 compared to other treatments. A highly significant difference in plant canopy was observed across the four application rates from weeks 1 to 5. Canopy spread was overall higher in the 10 kg m-2 application rate across all the weeks. A highly significant treatment effect was observed on leaf number with plants in the 10 kg m-2 application rate exhibiting the highest number of leaves. Stem thickness showed significance differences across treatments with the 10 kg m−2 application rate having thicker stems. A highly significant treatment effect was observed on number of harvested fruits with the 7.5 kg m-2 application rate showing higher yields between the first and fourth harvest and 10 kg m-2 application rate from fifth to sixth harvest. Organic fertilizer had a significant effect on fruit weight from first to third harvest with the 10 kg m-2 application rates having the heaviest tomato fruits. The 10 kg m-2application rate outperformed the lower rates for most measured parameters. The organic fertilizer is recommended to small-scale vegetable growers because it is affordable and abundant in Botswana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Varieties and Nitrogen Rates on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Highland Maize in Toke Kutaye, Western Ethiopia

Tolera Abera, Dagne Wegary, Tolessa Debele

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/23136

Soil fertility depletion is a widespread degradation problem in achieving global food security, but different attempts are available for maize production systems to alleviate the problems. Nitrogen use efficiency is required to meet increasing demands to produce sufficient food for the increasing population with sustainable production systems. Mean grain yield of maize positively affected by increased application of nitrogen fertilizer. Hybrid maize varieties were produced higher grain yield as compared open pollinated variety of maize. Higher agronomic efficiency of 35 to 46 as compared to Horra (OPV); and 5-16 as compared to Wenchi (hybrid) were harvested from Jibat followed by Wenchi and Webii varieties of maize planted with half recommended nitrogen rate. Higher nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency were obtained from Jibat followed by Webii and Wenchi varieties of maize planted with half recommended nitrogen fertilizer applied. Significantly higher nitrogen fertilizer (recovery) use efficiency 79.94% was obtained from maize varieties planted with half nitrogen fertilizer application as compared to recommended. Higher combined mean nitrogen use efficiency was obtained as compared to Horra variety relative to Wenchi. Hybrid highland maize varieties were more nitrogen use efficiency compared to open pollinated varieties. Uses of hybrid highland maize varieties (Jibat and Wenchi) were desirable options and recommended for sustainable maize production in highland areas of Toke Kutaye Western Ethiopia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Pepper (Capsicum sp.) Landraces from Ghana Using Agro-morphological Characters

Richard Yaw Agyare, Richard Akromah, Mashark Seidu Abdulaic

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25186

Aims: To examine the genetic diversity and relatedness among pepper accessions using agro-morphological markers.

Study Design: Augmented design with single rows of each genotype.

Place and Duration of Study: Research field, CSIR-Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Nyankpala-Tamale, Ghana, May to October, 2012.

Methodology: Fifty local pepper genotypes from different agro-ecological zones in Ghana were characterized using 35 agro-morphological (11 quantitative and 24 qualitative) traits using standard descriptors for Capsicum sp. For quantitative traits, measurements were recorded on ten tagged plants and the mean value used while four tagged plants were scored for the qualitative traits.

Results: The first three principal components accounted for 59.61% of the total genetic variance among the genotypes with the larger part of the variance explained by fruit pedicel width, fruit weight, fruit length, plant height, stem diameter, fruit pedicel length and fruit width. For qualitative traits, the first three principal components contributed to 51.65% of the total genetic variance with leaf pubescence density, fruit position, calyx annular constriction and filament colour as the most important parameters. The study showed a great variation in fruit traits revealing six fruit shapes and four fruit colours. Fruit weight exhibited positive and significant correlations with yield components such as fruit length and fruit width.

Conclusion: The study has shown that morphological markers are effective tools in studying genetic diversity in Capsicum species. This observed diversity among the pepper genotypes would therefore be used for improving pepper through hybridization and selection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical Efficiency of Small-holder Sweetpotato Farmers in Southeast Agro-ecological Zone of Nigeria

H. N. Anyaegbunam, B. C. Okoye, J. O. Nwaekpe, M. E. Ejechi, P. N. Ajuka

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22057

The paper investigated the level of technical efficiency and its determinants in sweetpotato production in South-East agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used in the selection of states and respondents. Two states, Abia and Enugu were randomly selected from the five states of south-east agro-ecological zone (Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo States). 120 respondents were randomly selected (60 respondents from each state). Data collecting instrument was a well-structured questionnaire. Stochastic frontier production function was used to analyze the data. The result of the maximum likelihood estimate shows that labour (1 percent), fertilizer (10 percent), capital input (1%) and farm size (10%) were significant and contributing factors to the output of sweetpotato farmers. The result of the scholastic frontier estimate reveals that the value of total variance and variance ratio were significant at 1 percent with the values of 0.4040 and 0.5464 respectively. The maximum technical efficiency computed was 0.93; the minimum was 0.27 while the mean was 0.80.This implies that the farmers are technically in-efficient in resource allocation. Determinants of technical efficiency include; age, farm size, extension visit and farming experience were significant at varied risk levels. The results call for policies aimed at empowering the extension agents to enhance technology dissemination and transfer. Also, farmers, especially the younger ones are to be assisted in terms of capital input in order to boost productivity and increase efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) for Water Logging and Salinity Tolerance under in vitro and in vivo Conditions

Sarvjeet Singh, Pooja Grover, Jagmeet Kaur, Jasdeep Kaur, Inderjit Singh, Pritpal Singh, O. P. Choudhary, Anupama Hingane, C. V. Sameer Kumar, K. B. Saxena

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24071

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) genotypes acquired from diverse sources, were screened for water logging and salinity tolerance under laboratory  and field conditions. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for various traits. Based on seedling vigor index, six genotypes (AL 1756, AL 1849, AH-06-7, H-2000-14, H-2003-14, ICP 5028) were found highly tolerant, 10 tolerant, 24 moderately tolerant, 12 sensitive and eight highly sensitive to water logging. In case of salinity treatment, seven genotypes (AL 1849, AH-06-7, H-2000-14, H-2001-25, H-2003-14, ICP 5028, JBP 110B) were found tolerant, 14 moderately tolerant, 17 sensitive and 22 highly sensitive. Mean values for germination percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor index were generally lower in salinity treatment than water logging treatment. Based on results of laboratory studies, 28 genotypes were screened in pot/field for tolerance to water logging and salinity and were categorized on the basis of plant survival percentage after treatments. Based on plant survival, four genotypes (AL 15, AL 1849, H-2000-14, H-02-28) were found highly tolerant, five tolerant, nine moderately tolerant, four sensitive and six were found highly sensitive in water logging treatment. In case of salinity treatment, six genotypes were found tolerant, five moderately tolerant, three sensitive and 14 were found highly sensitive. Based on higher plant survival (%) under both water logging and saline conditions, common genotypes were identified for their further use in breeding programme.