Open Access Original Research Article

Salt-tolerant Triticale (X Triticosecale Witt) Cultivation in Jordan as a New Forage Crop

Mohunnad Massimi, Moh`d Al-Rifaee, Jamal Alrusheidat, A. Al-Dakheel, Faddel Ismail`, YOUSEF Al-Ashgar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24292

The impact of climate change and global warming on food and feed crops production is reported in Jordan; a country where dry areas constitute about 90% of its land. The remaining arable areas (under rain fed or irrigated farming system) are decreasing due to urbanization, land fragmentation, drought, water scarcity, underground water over pumping and salinity. There is an urgent need for more tolerant crops that are capable to stand and cope with adverse climatic conditions and for diversification of crops in the farming systems.

The purpose of this work was to introduce a new forage crop suitable for small holders suffering from soil and, or water salinity. Triticale (X Triticosecale Witt) lines were evaluated for salt (soil and water) tolerance at Al-Khaledeya station and the most promising line was introduced to farmers' fields. Two-year field observations were conducted to study the effect of crop genotype on total yield. Two crops (triticale "Syria-1" cultivar, and barley "ACSAD 176" cultivar) were used in these trials, seeds from different crops were planted in both growing seasons of 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 at Azraq saline region (16.7 dS/m, and 2.1 dS/m in soil and water, respectively) field, and at Hashmyahh treated waste water region (3.17 dS/m, and 1.98 dS/m in soil and water, respectively). The grain and straw yield were compared with barley in the same region. Grain and straw chemical traits were evaluated in the laboratory by measuring Protein, fibers, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) percentages for the cultivated triticale in both regions of one season 2011 - 2012. Results indicated that triticale had positive effect on total yield in the salty region, triticale grains neutral detergent fiber percentage was 64.42% and was higher than that of triticale grains under treated waste water. In addition, acid detergent fiber percentage in the grains of the triticale was 12.54% and was lower than acid detergent fiber percentage (21.02%) of triticale grains grown under treated waste water. Triticale was adopted as a new forage crop by the farmers and its cultivation was disseminated in the salty regions. The total cultivated area to triticale in 2011 – 2015 expanded up to 46.6 ha, and this crop became commercialized and part of the seed production market in Jordan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Ugandan Cowpea Germplasm for Yield and Resistance to Scab Disease

E. Afutu, K. E. Mohammed, T. L. Odong, M. Biruma, P. R. Rubaihayo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25138

Aims: This study was conducted to identify cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars with high yield potential and resistance to scab disease caused by Sphaceloma sp. in Uganda. 100 cowpea genotypes were evaluated at two locations (Kabanyolo and Serere) in Uganda between April and July, 2014 using a 10 × 10 alpha lattice design.

Place and Duration of Study: Makerere University Agriculture Research Institute - Kabanyolo (MUARIK) and the National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI) – Serere between April to July, 2014.

Study Design and Methodology: Hundred cowpea lines (69 landraces, 25 inbred lines at F7, 1 local and 5 improved cultivars) were grown at each location in a 10 × 10 alpha lattice design with 3 replications to assess their reaction to the scab disease and yield potential (grain yield and yield related traits).

Results: The cowpea lines differed significantly (= .05) in their response to natural disease pressure as determined by disease incidence, apparent infection rate (r) and severity indicated by area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant differences (< .001) in genotypes, locations, AUDPC and other traits and genotype by location (G×L) interaction on AUDPC. The correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship of scab disease incidence with AUDPC (0.8; P < .001) but a significant (P < .001) negative relationship with grain yield (-0.8), number of pods per plant (-0.5), number of seeds per pod (-0.5) and 100 seed weight (-0.5). Cluster analysis based on only scab disease indexes produced 4 main clusters while cluster analysis based on disease and yield traits produced 3 main clusters. However, the two different clusters revealed similar grouping patterns in which cowpea lines with similar resistance ratings were shown to form unique clusters. R-mode principal component analysis yielded 4 principal components explaining 62.28% of the variation observed.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of apparent infection rate “r” alone as an index for rating a genotype for scab reaction was not decisive. One line (NE 15) was found to be resistant to the scab disease at both locations and high yielding and could be used in the cowpea improvement programme to breed for resistance to the scab disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Supplemental Levels of Probiotic on Growth Response, Intestinal Microbiota and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers

A. F. Agboola, B. R. O. Omidiwura, E. A. Iyayi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25082

The effect of varying levels of commercial probiotic on the performance, microbial status and carcass quality of broiler chickens was investigated in a 42-day experiment between March and April, 2014.

Two hundred (200) one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 4 diets with 5 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design.

Diet 1 was the basal diet with no supplement while diets 2, 3 and 4 were basal diets supplemented with graded levels (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) of probiotic. On day 42, ileal digesta were collected for microbial count and intestinal pH. The weight of carcass primal cuts and visceral organs were also recorded.

There were no remarkable differences observed in the final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the birds on the experimental diets in both starter and finisher phases. However, significantly higher (P= .05) feed intake (550.00 g/bird) was recorded in birds on diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg probiotics while birds on the basal diet had the least (470.00 g/bird) at day 0-21. Meanwhile between 22-42 days, the highest feed intake (1821.25 g/bird) was recorded for birds on diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg probiotic while the least (1630.00 g/bird) was observed in birds fed basal diet. There were no appreciable differences observed in the microbial population in the GIT of birds on the experimental diet except in the gram negative Enterococcus and Lactic Acid Bacteria counts. Birds on 600 mg/kg probiotic dietary supplement had the highest live weight (2142.00 g/bird) which was similar to those on 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg probiotics. There were no significant differences recorded for visceral organs and weight of the primal cuts of birds on the experimental diets except for drumstick.

In conclusion, improved growth response and carcass quality were achieved at all the inclusion levels of dietary probiotic without compromising birds’ performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Seeds Physical Traits of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea) Collected in Cameroon

Ndiang Zenabou, Bell Joseph Martin, Ouattara Bassiaka, Mokake Seraphine Ebenye, Ngalle Hermine Bille, Fonceka Daniel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/20592

Vigna subterranea is a leguminous species which produces edible seeds (Bambara groundnut). Its seeds are included in the daily diet to compensate the lack of proteins in the food which occurs frequently in populations under the tropics. However information regarding the extent and pattern of variation in Bambara groundnut accessions in Cameroon is limited. The objective of this study was to estimate variation in seed physical traits of twelve Bambara accessions collected in different regions in Cameroon. Seeds of Twelve Bambara accessions were harvested in Janaury 2013 and kept for four months in the Laboratory of Botany and Plant Physiology of the University of Douala. Selection was based on their color. Individual seed length, width and thickness were measured as the physical traits. The seed characteristics were also calculated as the geometric mean diameter, sphericity, seed volume, seed surface area and the aspect ratio. Moisture content varied from 8.11 to 13.12%. Results revealed that there was a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) for all the studied physical traits and seed characteristics, indicating large variation in seed physical traits of Bambara groundnut in Cameroon. The mean length, width and thickness of Bambara seeds ranged from 9.68 to 11.75 mm; 8.73 to 10.46 mm and 8.12 to 10.30 mm, respectively. Large seeds had higher geometric mean diameters, volume and surface area. However, small seeds had higher sphericity and aspect ratio than large seeds. The seeds were irregular in shape and size, and highly spherical with high aspect ratio and will roll rather than slide. Thus variation between individuals has to be attributed to a high number of additive effects and parameters can be studied through selection as major candidates.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Quantity of Shea Nut Assessed, Collected and Processed Using Improved Shea Nut Processing Technologies in Niger State, Nigeria

I. M. Koloche, A. M. A. Hamza, A. Mohammed, S. A. Yahaya, H. M. Garba, O. F. Oladipo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24444

This study assessed the quantity of Shea nut Assessed, collected and processed using improved Shea nut processing technologies in Niger State. The specific objectives of study were to; describe the socio economic characteristics of the Shea nut processors, determine the quantities of Shea nut/butter produced by the processors and income generated, and examine the constraints faced by the processors in adopting Shea nut processing technologies in the study area. A total of 150 Shea nut processors were selected randomly. Primary data were collected and analyzed. The result revealed that Shea nut processing activities were mainly women business and that the processors collected above 500,000 kg of Shea nut from the wild plantation of Shea trees in their communities and processed above 800 kg into Shea butter in a year which served as a source of income. It is recommended that Shea stakeholders in processing and marketing should interact with Nigerian Institute for Oil palm Research (NIFOR) that has the national mandate on Shea tree research and development to produce sufficient quantity of hybrid/improved Shea tree seedling varieties for modern plantation establishments.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Diversity of Green Bean Biochemical Compounds in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) as Evaluated by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Pauline Aluka, Fabrice Davrieux, Kahiu Ngugi, Rose Omaria, Fourny Gerard, Thierry Leroy, Magali Dufour, Pinard Fabrice

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/23004

Aims: This study characterized biochemical compound variability that influence green bean quality in C. canephora as a basis for identifying heterogeneous genotypes for use in crop improvement because genetic erosion aided by climate change effects is gradually threatening the cultivation of Ugandan Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) local races.

Study Design: Four hundred and fifty four accessions from twenty four districts were analyzed with Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) for six biochemical compounds using calibrations developed at CIRAD, France.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was conducted at the National Coffee Resources Research Institute (NaCORRI), Uganda between January 2007 and December 2013.

Methodology: Spectrometer Nirsystem 6500 Foss- (Denmark) machine and Software ISI NIRS 2 version 4.11 (Infra Soft International, Port Matilda, USA) were used to analyze ground samples in diffuse reflectance from 400 nm to 2500 nm (2 nm steps) and predictive models were used to quantify the biochemical contents in the green beans. Data was analyzed with XLSTAT version 2011.2.05 (Addinsoft), Paris, France.

Results: Chlorogenic acid and fat concentrations of 13.26 and 13.19% dry matter respectively reported in this study, were much higher than 5.88 and 9.0% dry matter respectively reported earlier. Caffeine concentrations were positively significantly correlated with cholorogenic acid but negatively significantly correlated with trigonelline, sucrose, fat and dry matter contents. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid concentrations increased with age whereas trigonelline declined as trees aged. Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline concentrations were at their lowest levels in elevations of between 1000- 1200 metres above sea level and like fat and dry matter concentrations, the compounds were at their highest levels in higher elevations of about 1500 metres above sea level. Local landraces, ‘’nganda’’ and ‘’erecta’’ had higher concentrations of chlorogenic acid, sucrose and caffeine than improved, hybrid and commercial types.

Conclusions: Ugandan C. canephora caffeine content was lower than that of West-African Robusta coffee but higher than that of Arabica coffee. Four distinct diversity groups derived from the six biochemical compounds represented the major organoleptic categories. The results reported here will be useful in defining the desirable cup qualities of Robusta coffee as demanded by world markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Foliar Application of Boron (B) on the Grain Set and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

O. A. Fakir, M. A. Rahman, M. Jahiruddin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24286

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of boron (B) on the grain set and yield of wheat (cv. Shatabdi).

Study Design: The experiment was designed with six boron treatments, arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The field trial was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) farm, Mymensingh during 27 November 2010 to 24 March 2011.

Methodology: The B treatments were (i) B control, (ii) soil application of B, (iii) seed priming into boric acid solution, (iv) foliar spray of B at primordial stage of crop, (v) foliar spray of B at booting stage and (vi) foliar spray of B at primordial and booting stages. The rate of B for soil application was 1.5 kg B ha-1 from boric acid (17% B) and the rate for each foliar spray was 0.4% boric acid solution. Seed priming was done by soaking wheat seeds into 0.1% boric acid solution for 10 hours and then seeds were dried before sowing. Every plot received 115 kg N, 25 kg P, 75 kg K and 15 kg S per hectare from urea, TSP, MoP and gypsum, respectively.

Results: The treatment receiving foliar spray of B at both primordial and booting stages of the crop performed the highest yield (3630 kg ha-1) which was statistically similar with the yield recorded with foliar spray of B at booting or primordial stage of crop and with soil application of B before crop (wheat) was sown; all the yields were significantly higher over the yield noted with seed priming or control treatment. The control treatment (no B application) had the lowest grain yield (2600 kg ha-1) which was significantly lower than the yield observed with the seed priming treatment.

Conclusion: Wheat yield was affected due to grain set failure induced by boron deficiency and it was possible to overcome this element deficiency by soil application at 1.5 kg B ha-1 or foliar application of 0.4% boric acid solution at primordial or booting stage of crop.