Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties for Resistance to Bean Stem Maggot (Ophiomyia spp.) in Kenya

G. J. Kiptoo, M. Kinyua, O. Kiplagat, F. M. E. Wanjala, J. J. Kiptoo, J. J. Cheboi, S. K. Kimno, G. Rotich, J. K. Ngurwe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24915

Common bean is the most important pulse crop in Kenya, though small scale farmers involved in its farming have limited access to quality seeds resistant to pests such as bean stem maggot, thereby limiting its production from potential yield production of 2000 kg ha-1 to less than 1000 kg ha-1. This study was therefore aimed at determining effective ways of managing bean stem maggot through identification and selection of resistant commercial varieties for enhanced host resistance. This was achieved through screening levels of resistance among commercial varieties and determining severity and incidence of bean stem maggot infestations. The study was conducted in Kakamega, Njoro and Uasin-gishu. The varieties were planted together with two local checks; KK 8, Tasha, KK 15 (Resistant check), Chelalang, Wairimu dwarf, Ciankui, GLP 585, Miezi mbili, GLP 2 (Susceptible check), GLP 1004, GLP 24, and GLP 1127. A score of 1-9 scale (1-3 highly resistant, 3-5 resistant, 5-7 susceptible and 7-9 highly susceptible) was used. The experimental design used was RCB (Randomized Complete Block) design with three replications. Data collected was subjected to ANOVA using SAS program version 9.1, considering varieties as fixed and replicates as random factors. The results showed that the bean varieties resistant to bean stem maggot were; Chelalang, Tasha, GLP 1004, KK 8, GLP 585 and KK 15. The resistant varieties deter bean stem maggot attack and are recommended for use by farmers in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Three Tillage Implements on Potato Yield and Water Use Efficiency

Saad A. Al-Hamed, Mohamed F. Wahby, Ahmed A. Sayedahmed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24950

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage implements on potato yield and water use efficiency. The study was conducted at a private farm at Al-Kharj Governorate, Saudi Arabia during 2015 in randomize complete block design with three replications. Three primary tillage implements commonly used in Saudi Arabia for seedbed preparation with different configurations: disk harrow, chisel plow and moldboard plow were used. The potato variety used was Spunta. Centre pivot system was used to provide irrigation water. The statistical analysis indicated that tillage implement had significant effect on yield and water use efficiency. The highest yield of 37.19 t/ha was observed during plowing with moldboard plow and the lowest (32.33 t/ha) was observed during plowing with disk harrow. The highest water use efficiency of 7.91 kg/m3 was observed during plowing with moldboard plow and the lowest (6.88 kg/m3) was observed during plowing with disk harrow. The results could be helpful to develop comprehensive technology to increase potato yield and water use efficiency in semi-arid region like Saudi Arabia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forage Intake and Wastage by Ewes in Pea/Hay Barley Swath Grazing and Bale Feeding Systems

Erin E. Nix, Devon L. Ragen, Janice G. P. Bowman, Rodney W. Kott, Mark K. Petersen, Andrew W. Lenssen, Patrick G. Hatfield, Emily C. Glunk

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25197

Harvested feed costs, particularly during the winter, are traditionally the highest input associated with a ruminant livestock operation. Although swath grazing has been practiced for over 100 years and literature exists for cattle use of swath grazing, no published results are available on use of swath grazing by sheep. Sixty mature, white-faced ewes were used in a completely randomized design repeated 2 years to evaluate whether feeding method (swath grazed or fed as baled hay in confinement) of intercropped field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) forage affected ewe ADG (average daily gain), forage DMI (dry matter intake), and wastage. The study was conducted at Ft. Ellis Research Station in Bozeman, MT during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Each year, 30 ewes were allocated to 3 confinement pens (10 ewes/pen) and 30 ewes were allocated to 3 grazing plots (10 ewes/plot). Ewes had ad libitum access to forage and water. Individual ewe forage DMI was estimated using chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as a marker for estimating fecal output. Measures of fecal output were combined with measures of forage indigestibility to determine DMI for each ewe. Forage wastage was calculated by sampling and weighing initial available forage, and subtracting final available forage and DMI. Forage DMI (P ≥ 0.13), ewe ADG (P ≥ 0.40), and forage percent wastage (P > 0.28) did not differ for swathed versus baled pea/hay barley forage during either year. These results suggest that a swathed feeding system can function as a viable alternative to a traditional baled feeding system for pea/hay barley forage in commercial sheep operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ambient Storage Temperature and Seed Moisture Content on Seed Longevity of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

Ibrahim Demir, Eren Ozden, Fatih Kara, Mohammad Hassanzadeh, Kazım Mavi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25526

This study was conducted to test changes in seed storage longevity of lettuce seeds at ambient monthly mean temperatures mimicked in five different regions of Turkey, for 28 months and moisture contents of 7, 9 and 11±0.1%. Hermetically stored samples were removed from storage every four months and normal seed germination was tested. Survival curves were constructed and probit analyses were conducted. Differences in longevity were compared by changes in P50, the time germination reduced to 50% and σ, the time germination reduced 1 probit value (i.e. 85% to 50%). The means of three moisture contents revealed that the highest (P50=19.5 months) and lowest (P50=5.5 months) seed longevity was obtained from Black Sea and South East regions, respectively. In all regions, shorter longevity values were recorded in seeds of high moisture content. Results indicated that high ambient moisture and temperature storage conditions can adversely affect lettuce seed longevity. Thus lower seed moisture content is necessary to maintain seed viability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Responses of Pansy (Viola wittrockiana Gams.) to the Quality of the Growing Media

E. Gandolfo, G. Hakim, J. Geraci, V. Feuring, E. Giardina, A. Di Benedetto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26144

The quality of the growing medium stands out as one of the most important factors affecting the success of annual plants, especially when grown in potted culture. Recently, we have suggested that growing medium gives not only a matrix for water and nutrient absorption but also a source of external signalling. The aim of this work was to assess the performance of six pansy (Viola wittrockiana Gams.) genotypes grown in two growing media with significant differences in both physical and chemical properties, aiming to understand how substrate quality change the physiological mechanism related to biomass accumulation. The responses of the six pansy genotypes tested to the two growing media were significantly different. The mechanisms involved included fresh weight accumulation, leaf area expansion; RGR, RLA, glucose content and photo assimilate partitioning. On the other hand, RGR, RLA and glucose content were associated with root dry weight at the end of the experiments. Since the responses to the different growing media were the same as those found in plants grown with root restriction related to container volume, we speculated that cytokinins might act as endogenous signals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cacao Developmental Pattern, Soil Temperature and Moisture Variation as Affected by Shade and Dry Season Drip Irrigation

Idowu B. Famuwagun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22628

Field experiments were conducted in Akure and Oda communities in Ondo state within the rain forest zone of Nigeria between 2010 and 2012. Single and combined effects of shade and irrigation were investigated on soil temperature, soil moisture variations and cacao seedling development and establishment on the field. The treatments involved included plantain shade alone, dry season irrigation alone, plantain shade + dry season irrigation and the control. Seedling vigor in terms of plant height, number of leaves and basal stem girth were significantly higher under no shade + irrigation compared to those obtained in the control plots. No significant difference in the basal stem girth of the cacao seedlings and the number of leaves produced between no shade +irrigation and shade + irrigation at the first nine months of the experiment. Soil temperature was significantly higher in the unshaded plots compared to other treatments. Shade alone and the combination of shade + irrigation was found to significantly reduce soil temperature and enhanced seedling survival compared to the non-shaded control plots. The results indicated a significant difference between the irrigated plots with shade and the unshaded control. Shaded plots + irrigation enhances soil temperature maintenance within the range of 26-32ºC throughout the four months of dry season and also improve percentage seedling establishment from less than 61.5% under the control plots to 99.12% under irrigation alone and irrigation + shade. Percentage seedlings survival was highest under irrigated plots with no record of stand mortality as they suffer less of moisture stresses during the dry season as recorded under non irrigated plots. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Broilers to Dietary Moringa oleifera Leaf, Raw and Cooked Seed Meal and Synthetic Antibiotics

I. O. Adejumo, C. O. Adetunji, C. O. Olopade, K. O. George

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25302

The effects of Moringa oleifera leaf meal and raw and cooked seed meal as a replacement for synthetic antibiotic (tetracycline) on carcass characteristics, heart and liver histology of broiler chickens were assessed in a 7-week feeding trial.

The design of the study was a completely randomised design. There were 5 treatments: negative control (D1), positive control (D2), treatments 3, 4 and 5 (D3, D4 and D5) contained 0.25 g/kg of feed of raw air-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal, 0.25 g/kg of feed of raw air-dried and cooked air-dried Moringa oleifera seed meal respectively. Each treatment had four replicates of 8 birds per replicate.

The results of the study indicated no significant difference across the treatments for most of the carcass characteristics. Birds on D1 recorded the lowest mean values for heart (6.94 g), spleen (1.56 g), wings (121.00 g) and drumstick (154.24 g). Birds on D4 compared well with those on D2 in terms of drumstick, spleen, heart and wings. No visible lesions were observed in the heart histology of the experimental birds. Liver photomicrograph of birds on D1 indicated mild dissociation of hepatic cords, those on D2 showing closely-packed hepatic plates. Those on D3 showed a few foci of mild random single-cell hepatocellular necrosis. Those on D4 showing no visible lesions while those on D5 showed severe diffuse fatty change of hepatocytes with a few normal hepatocytes.

Birds on raw Moringa oleifera seed meal compared well with those on synthetic antibiotics, however, the liver histology of those on synthetic antibiotics indicated potential danger of liver damage.