Open Access Original Research Article

Calibration of Soil Water Content Data from EnviroSCAN System Using Artificial Neural Network

Hussein M. Al-Ghobari, Mohamed S. A. El Marazky, Abdulwahed M. Aboukarima, Mamdouh Minyawi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26237

Irrigation is one of the essential issues in agriculture in developing countries. Usually, in the developing countries, traditional farmers are likely to use more water than the required for crop production, thus wasting water. Hence, soil water sensors are typically needed in such situations to alert the farmer when the field needs irrigation and when it does not. One of these sensors is the EnviroScan system. It has the potential to monitor and estimate the soil water content continuously at various soil depths. Calibration is important to obtain accurate results. In this study, the volumetric soil water content and scaled frequencies from the EnviroScan system were recorded in a 60- cm soil profile. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to calibrate the soil water content compared with a regression analysis using field data at different soil depths in sandy clay loam soil. Several ANN architectures were employed in order to determine the optimum architecture. The coefficients of determination (R2) of a regression calibration equation of scaled frequency against the gravimetric soil water content were 0.9225, 0.9623, and 0.9593 for 0–20 cm, 20–30 cm, and 30–60 cm soil depths. The R2 between gravimetric soil water content and the estimated by ANN model was 0.9928 for a 0–20 cm soil depth, 0.9809 for a 20–30 cm soil depth, and 0.9878 for a 30–60 cm soil depth. Using the data set for the entire 60-cm soil profile for calibration by ANN model, the R2 value was 0.9715.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities in Leaves of 14 Breeding Lines of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

E. K. Quartey, H. M. Amoatey, E. Achoribo, M. Owusu-Ansah, W. Nunekpeku, S. Donkor, A. S. Appiah, E. S. K. Ofori

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/18087

Two (2) month-old leaves of fourteen (14) breeding lines of cassava, consisting of five (5) parental lines and nine hybrids, were evaluated for their phytochemical constituents. The objective of the study was to determine total flavonoid, phenolic and antioxidant activity in the leaves of the breeding lines. The 14 breeding lines were grown in the research farm of the Biotechnology and nuclear Agriculture Research Institute between March and September 2011. Analyses were carried out at the laboratories Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) between July and August 2011. The randomized complete block design, with three replicates, was used. Results indicate statistically significant differences in Total Flavonoid Contents (TFCs), Total Phenolic Contents (TPCs) and Total Antioxidant Activities (TAAs) recorded for both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the breeding lines. Hyb-9 gave the highest total flavonoid content of 179.90±0.21 mg/g/QE (ethanol extract) as well as total phenolic contents of 128.25 mg/g/GAE and 95.33+3.61 mg/g/GAE for both ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively, while Security gave the highest value for total flavonoid content of 96.7+0.03 (aqueous extract). Similarly, Larbi recorded the highest TAA in ethanolic extract (82.88+3.07%), while Hyb-15 gave the highest value of aqueous extract (80.92+2.79%). In general there was strong positive correlation among the TFC, TPC and TAA. Most hybrids exhibited higher TFCs and TPCs than their parents in the ethanolic extracts.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) Clones and Variability for Morphological Traits among Hybrids

Goodness U. Adebo, Daniel B. Adewale, Malachy O. Akoroda

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24806

Aims: To estimate the general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) of some cocoa clones for some vegetative and pod trait and to quantify the extent of variability among the studied cocoa genotypes.

Place and Duration of Sample: The experiment was performed at Local Clone Trial plot, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), Ibadan between June 2013 and April 2014.

Methodology: Three cocoa testers (N38 – T3, T65/7 – T4, and T8/27 – T5) were crossed with two cocoa lines (T12/11 – L1, and T30/13 – L2). Generated pods were evaluated for girth (PG), thickness (PIT) and inner diameter (PIW). Seeds from the selfed and the hybrid pods were sown and established in a completely randomized design with three replications. Data on stem girth (SG), plant height (PH), number of leaves (NL), leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW), and petiole length (PTL) were taken at two weeks intervals for twelve weeks on the eleven cocoa genotypes.

Results: Line and tester analysis revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences for treatment, parents, crosses, lines and line by tester sources of variation. The highest general combining ability (3.83) occurred in T3 for PH. The best (0.46) specific combiner for PG was L2 x T5, while L2 x T3 and L1 x T3 were the best combiners for PIT (0.18) and PIW (3.14) respectively. Analysis of variance also revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences among the genotypes. T12/11 and T65/7 had the highest genetic similarity (0.86).

Conclusion: Hybrids from the crosses of the parents are new recombinants, adding to the cocoa germplasm size. The observed genotypic diversity forms a good basis for selection of traits to assist a further improvement of cocoa genotypes. Crosses with significant specific combining ability could be selected and use for implementing a more effective cocoa breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Sweet Orange and Cassava Peel Amendments for the Management of Root-knot Nematodes on Tomato

F. J. Manneh, C. K. Kwoseh, T. Adjei-Gyapong, J. L. Starr

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24638

Aim: To determine efficacy of organic amendments in the management of root-knot nematodes.

Design of the Study: Experiments were arranged in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments replicated five times and Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 11 treatments replicated four times at the laboratory and field respectively.

Study Place and Duration: The studies were carried out in the Nematology laboratory and research field at the Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana from March, 2014 to December, 2015.

Methodology: Five aqueous extracts of: 1) Fresh sweet orange peel (FOP), 2) Fresh cassava peel (FCP), 3) Dry sweet orange peel (DOP) and 4) Dry cassava peel (DCP) on egg hatching inhibition and juvenile mortality of root-knot nematodes were studied at the laboratory. Sterilized water was used as the control. Eleven treatments: 1) FOP, 2) DOP, 3) FCP, 4) DCP, 5) FCP+FOP, 6) FOP+FCP, 7) DOP+DCP, 8) DCP+DOP, 9) NPK and ((NH4)SO4) fertilizers, 10) Carbofuran and 11) No application (control) against root-knot nematodes were studied on the field.

Results: At the laboratory, the highest percentage egg hatching inhibition (87.8%) and juvenile mortality (94.8%) of root-knot nematodes were recorded in the FOP aqueous extract. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed between FOP aqueous extract and the rest of the treatments in the mortality of root-knot nematodes. For the field experiment, combined application of FOP and FCP significantly increased (P<0.05) yield more than the rest of the treatments. Carbofuran, followed by the combined application of FOP and FCP significantly reduced (P<0.05) gall index, number of eggs, number of root-knot nematode juveniles in the root and the soil in both seasons. However, no significant difference (P>0.05) was observed between carbofuran and combined application of FOP and FCP.

Conclusion: The sweet orange and cassava peels were found to be effective in reducing galling and population of root-knot nematodes in the roots and soil of tomato. Also, the aqueous extracts of FOP, DOP and FCP showed high potential in egg hatching inhibition and juvenile mortality of root-knot nematodes. Further evaluation of the combined application of FOP and FCP at farmers’ fields is recommended. Also, methods of application, for example, in the form of aqueous extract should be tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Response of Oryza Species Seedlings to Saline Conditions

R. E. Aliyu, A. K. Adamu, S. K. Sakariyahu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26703

Aims: This investigation was conducted to profile and evaluate the response of Oryza species to salt stress at seedling growth stage.  

Study Design: Salt tolerance was studied by evaluations, using the Standard Evaluation System of IRRI for salt tolerance under hydroponic systems.

Place and Duration of Study: The investigations for this study were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan (Latitude 3°541N and longitude 7°301W), Nigeria. The seeds of 184 rice genotypes (comprising of 130 O. sativa lines; 26 O. glaberrima, 16 O. barthii lines and 12 interspecific hybrids (NERICA) were obtained from the International Rice Research Institute, Las Boanos, Philippines and Africa Rice, Ibadan station, IITA, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 184 rice genotypes (comprising of 130 Oryza sativa lines; 26 Oryza glaberrima, 16 Oryza barthi and 12 interspecific hybrid (NERICA) were subjected to salinization with NaCl at EC 12dSm-1and pH 5.2 for 28 days in a hydroponic system. Plant phenotypic responses were evaluated to ascertain specie response. Among the test entries were Pokkali and IR29 which served as the tolerant and susceptible checks respectively.

Results: Seedlings from the genotypes showed varying levels of salt injury symptoms. The effect of salinity stress on plant growth parameters were genotype and species dependent. Progressive reductions in most growth parameters were obtained with increasing age of plant. Plasticity due to salinity stress was observed in some growth parameters (increased leaves number, longer root length and improved tillering ability). Susceptible genotypes showed more effect of salt injury than tolerant genotypes. Tolerant genotypes (6.92%) to salinity tress were predominated by Oryza sativa genotypes. The interspecific hybrids (NERICA) showed moderate tolerance (73.3%) to salinity stress followed sequentially by Oryza sativa (57.9%), Oryza glaberrima (18.5%) and Oryza barthii (12.5%). NERICA accumulated more salts in their shoot compared to other species of rice. TOG9047 (O. glaberrima) showed tolerance comparable to Pokkali (tolerant check) at seedling stage. Genotypes like OS6, Indiano and WAB 100-B-B-B-2B showed greater salt injury compared to IR29 (negative check) and could serve as an alternative to IR29. Reductions in biomass arising from salinity stress served as a good indicator of susceptible genotypes to salt stress. Reductions in the root/shoot ratio indicated that salinity had more effect on the roots than the shoots of the genotypes and hence, suggests the point of action and damage due to salinity.

Conclusion: Oryza species showed varied response to salt stress. These responses were genotype and specie dependent. Oryza sativa contained the highest percentage of tolerant genotypes to salinity stress at 12dSm-1. However, NERICA contained the highest percentage of moderately tolerant to salinity stress followed sequentially by Oryza sativa, Oryza glaberrima and Oryza barthii. Tolerant and moderately tolerant genotypes could further be exploited for breeding purposes geared towards crop advancement.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Determination of Some Agronomic Properties of Lines Selected among Domestic Dry Bean Populations Collected from Kelkit Valley and Artvin Province

Ömer Sözen, Hatice Bozoğlu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26270

This study has been conducted to compare some agronomic properties of 23 bean lines selected among domestic dry bean populations collected from Kelkit Valley and Artvin province with the standard varieties. Domestic dry bean lines (23 number) and dry bean varieties (Zülbiye, Akdag, Goynuk 98, Sahin 90, Karacaşehir 90 and Onceler) have been used in the analysis. Trial has been established by sowing plants in 5 m rows with 70 cm gaps in augmented trial pattern on Samsun ecological conditions on 18.05.2011. Plant height, pods per plant, 100 seeds weight, seeds per plant and yield per plant have been determined. Variance analyses according to augmented pattern have been conducted on the collected data and group means were tested for significant (p<0.05) differences. Analysis has been determined that line K.1128 had the greatest plant height and 100 seeds weight with 106 cm and 48.62 g respectively where line A.26 had the greatest pods and seeds per plant with 68.66 and 261 respectively. Line K.1032 had the greatest yield per plant with 73.01 g. As a result, lines A.26, A.27 and A.341 among the dwarf lines and lines K.1012, K.1032 and K.1128 among the semi-dwarf lines have been chosen to be included in the yield trials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Utilization of Selected Forest Fruits in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

I. K. Gideon, U. U. Akpan, I. E. Akpan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26602

This study was carried out to determine the factors that affect the utilization of selected fruits in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Data were collected using well-structured questionnaire and analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis and descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages. The results indicated that 68% of the respondents were male, 39.9% had secondary education and majority of the respondents were farmers. The results also showed that most of the respondents (98.2%) bought their fruit from the market. The result indicated that 100% of the respondents had adequate knowledge on the existence of Dacryodes edulis (eben), and 95% on Cola argentea (ndiya), while few of the respondents (27.9%) had little knowledge on the existence of Maesobotrya dusenii. The result also revealed that numerous benefits such as food, income medicine are derived from fruits and that lack of money (91%), non-availability of the fruits, and deforestation of the forest (64.9%) were the major constraints faced in the utilization of these forest fruits in the study area. Result of the regression analysis revealed that age was positively related to the value of forest fruits utilized. The level of education was positive and significant (P<0.10). Income was positive and significant (P<0.10) implying that as income increase, the quantity of forest fruits consumed is likely to increase correspondingly and vice versa. Also forest fruits are versatile in their uses as food for man and animals, source of medicine and income generation. They could be obtained from the forest, homegarden and markets. Socioeconomic factors such as age, educational qualification, and income influence the utilization of the forest fruits extension activities should be carried out to enlighten the public on the uses and importance of the different forest fruits. Also policy makers should enact laws which would strictly discourage deforestation. This will ensure adequate and all-year-round availability of the different forest fruits in the state.