Open Access Short Research Article

Organic Fertilization: Answer in the Sugarcane Development (Saccharum officinarum L.)

Káthia Raquel Lopes Fonseca, Larisse Pinheiro Schmid, João Carlos Medeiros, Fabio Mielezrski, Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26474

The influence of different doses of organic and chemical fertilizers can provide better efficiency in nutrient availability to plants and reduce the application in large quantities. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of different levels of organic manure and chemical fertilization on the development of plant cane plants. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications, each block had 7 treatments (T1 Fertilizing organic 15 t ha-1 of cattle manure; T2 Organic Fertilization 30 t ha-1 of cattle manure; T3- organic manure 45 t ha-1 of cattle manure, fertilizer T4 Chemistry 50% according to the soil soil analysis, fertilizer T5- Chemistry 100% according to the soil analysis, fertilizer T6- Chemistry 150% according to soil analysis and T7- unfertilized control and evaluated on different days after planting. The results showed that the treatments corresponding to organic fertilization (T1, T2 and T3), allowed greater plant growth parameters for height, stem diameter, number of tillers and sugarcane leaves. The organic fertilization in different proportions, following the recommendations according to soil analysis, allows further development of sugarcane plants in sandy soil texture of the Piauí compared to chemical fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity of Prolactin Gene in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) as Affected by Location in Nigeria

F. O. Eichie, A. E. Salako, O. H. Osaiyuwu, S. E. Aggrey

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25575

Restriction fragment length Polymorphism (RFLP) marker was used to investigate the effect of location on polymorphism, relationship and population structure with respect to prolactin gene (PRL gene) in Japanese quails in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from thirty quails each from 5 different regions (North, South, West, East and North Central), for PRL loci analysis. DNA was extracted from the samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis was used to characterize a 24 base pair (bp) insertion/deletion (Indel) in a 358 bp PCR product. The populations were characterized for their genetic variability using allele frequencies, polymorphic information content, observed heterozygosity (Ho), genetic distance (D), F-statistics (FIT, FIS, FST), analysis of molecular variance, test for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (H-WE) and cluster analysis. Two alleles A (0.35 to 0.63) and B (0.37 to 0.65) were observed at the PRL gene loci. The highest FIT was recorded between 0.10 (East) and 0.19 (North) indicating inbreeding within the population. The FIS among populations were between 0.09 (North central) and 0.14 (North) while FST ranged from 0.001 (North central) to 0.06 (North), indicating moderate genetic differentiation among populations. Chi Square result indicated that the population were not in H-WE. The phylogenetic relationships showed that the population from the 5 regions had common descent. Clusters from the combined population showed that PRL gene is based on individual genotype and not location. AMOVA analysis showed that 3% of the total genetic variation was explained by population difference, 19% by variation among individuals and 77% within individuals. The results showed that study of prolactin gene diversity is useful for decision making for selective breeding and conservation strategies for Japanese quails irrespective of the location.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Different Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Selection to Combined Application of Inorganic Fertilizers and Organic Manures

Imtiyaz A. Wani, M. Y. Bhat, M. A. Dar, Sheikh Mehraj, I. A. Bisati, Sartaj A. Wani, Mehraj-Ud-Din Khanday

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24695

The effectiveness of combined application of inorganic fertilizers and organic manures was studied on four walnut selections in temperate region of India (Kashmir). The experiment consisted of four selections [SKAU/002 (S1), SKAU/008 (S2), SKAU/024 (S3) and SKAU/040 (S4)] and six treatments [T1 (NPK recommended as per package of practices through inorganic fertilizers), T2 {100% through manure (FYM 50% + vermicompost 25% + poultry manure 25%)}, T3 (75% NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 25% through FYM), T4 (75% NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 25% through vermicompost), T5 (75% NPK  through inorganic fertilizers + 25% through poultry manure) and T {75% NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 25% through manure (1/3 FYM + 1/3 vermicompost + 1/3 poultry manure)} replicated five times and three tree in each replication in Factorial Randomized Block Design. All fertilizers and manures were applied in the first week of December beneath the tree canopy and incorporated well with soil. There was significant difference in vegetative growth and yield parameters among different treatments as well as different walnut selections. Results reveal that maximum increment in tree height (16.12%), tree girth (1.40%), tree canopy volume (37.85 m3), shoot extension growth (0.81 m), fruit set (40.52%)  fruit retention (58.21%), yield  (5.87 kg/tree) was found in treatment T4. Within selections S1 showed maximum fruit set (38.96%) and fruit retention (57.53%), however S2 recorded highest yield (5.53 kg/tree).

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance, Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Uda Sheep with Graded Levels of Xylopia aethiopica (Ethiopian pepper)

N. Muhammad, I. Musa, S. A. Maigandi, S. Buhari, K. M. Aljameel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26581

Aims: The effect of Xylopia aethiopica (Kimba) fruit on growth performance, nutrient intake and digestibility of Uda rams was investigated using 20 yearling Uda rams in eighty four days (feeding) and fourteen days (digestibility) trials.

Methodology: The animals were fed diets containing 0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg respectively) supplemented levels of Xylopia aethiopica fruit in a completely randomized experimental design replicated five times. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), where significant difference exist least significant differences (LSD) was used to separate the means

Results: Results indicated no significant difference in all the performance parameters (p=.05) except in feed intake as % body weight (which is significantly higher (p<0.01) for animals fed 5.0% Xylopia aethiopica per 100 kg diet). Total saponins intake, total tannin intake, saponins intake (kg/day) and tannins intake (kg/day) were significant across the treatments (p<0.01). Results showed no significant difference in all nutrients intake (p=.05) except ether extract and ash (p<0.01) with higher values for animals fed diets containing 7.5% Xylopia aethiopica. The digestibility of all nutrients except ether extract were significantly higher for animals fed diets containing 0 and 2.5% levels of Xylopia aethiopica.

Conclusion: It was concluded that increasing the level of Xylopia aethiopica in the diets of Uda rams more than 2.5% (2.5 g/kg) might significantly reduce performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Combination of Soil Granular NPK and Foliar Liquid Fertilizer on Nutrients Uptake and Maize Yield

O. N. Adeniyan, A. O. Aluko, S. O. Olanipekun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/22060

Investigation to compare the effect of soil basal granular NPK fertilization to its combination with liquid foliar fertilization on maize nutrients uptake and yield was conducted on experimental station of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation Ibadan located at Ikenne, Ogun state Nigeria; high rain forest agro-ecology and experimental farm of the Nigeria Institute For Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) at Ikoga, Badagry, Lagos state; coastal rain forest agro-ecology in 2009 cropping season. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments consisted of different levels of soil applied NPK (20-10-10) fertilizer in combination with liquid foliar fertilizer from Vioryl products, sole 100 kg/ha NPK and sole liquid foliar fertilizer products. Application of 100 kg/ha granular NPK fertilizer combined with foliar fertilizer application resulted in higher dry matter, cob and grain weights, yield and more concentrations of N, P, K, Mg and Zn in maize tissues than individual application of NPK fertilizer or foliar fertilizer in both locations. The increase due to the soil application of NPK fertilizer at different levels (100, 80, 60 and 40 kg/ha) combined with foliar fertilizer compared to the sole application of 100 kg/ha NPK fertilizer varied from 16 to 60% at Ikenne and 17 to 48% at Badagry for maize grain weight, and 6 to 26% at Ikenne and 6 to 30% at Badagry for maize dry matter yield. Based on the results of this study, farmers are advised to use the foliar liquid fertilizer as a nutrient complement rather than as the basic fertilizer as is envisaged. Research needs to be conducted to ascertain the influence of seasons on various types of fertilizer applications on maize production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption and Desorption of Chlorsulfuron in Agricultural Soils of Mara River Basin, Kenya

Joanne A. Ogunah, Philip O. Owuor, Crispin O. Kowenje, Joseph O. Lalah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26406

Chlorsulfuron is a sulfonylurea herbicide widely used in Kenya to control broadleaf and grass weeds in wheat. Its sorption was studied in five wheat growing soils from Mara River Basin in Kenya using batch sorption method. Freundlich adsorption equation described the sorption mechanism of chlorsulfuron with adsorption coefficients (Kf) ranging between 0.46 and 0.75. The Kf showed positive and negative correlation (P ≤ 0.05) with organic carbon (r = 0.7882) and soil pH (r = 0.8111) respectively. Adsorption isotherms were L-type suggesting the herbicide sorption was inversely related to the initial concentration of chlorsulfuron in solution. Desorption of the herbicide was concentration dependent and hysteresis effect was present in three soils implying that sorbed chlorsulfuron was not easily released possibly leading to phytotoxicity to rotational crops. Chlorsulfuron was poorly sorbed on to the soils demonstrating its high leaching potential onto the lower profiles and carry over that would injure susceptible plants in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Performance of Maize Treated with Neem Seed Extracts against Stem Borers

J. A. Wahedi, D. L. David, E. P. Danba, S. Yisa, R. Zakariya

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26485

Maize is cultivated throughout the ecological zones of Nigeria, and it is found with a high yield potential in savanna regions. It is cultivated under a broad range of climatic conditions. Maize is the most cost-effective and highest yield plant resource in the world. It serves as a material for the production of livestock forage; fodder and feed in sub-Saharan Africa. Lepidopteran stem borers are a major pest of maize and can cause losses between 10-70% in maize. Field bioassays were conducted to determine efficacies of neem seed kernel extracts in the control of maize stem borers. The results showed that neem seed kernel extracts significantly (P=0.05) reduced stem borer damage on maize plants in terms of dead hearts and stem borer holes; reduced the infestation and development of the stem borers and also significantly (P=0.05) increase grain yield by 6.98% (Neem Seed Oil), 5.63% (neem seed powder), and 4.45% (neem seed aqueous extract) above the control (untreated). The order of the efficacy of neem seed kernel extracts is: NSO>NSP>NSAE. It is suggested that neem as biopesticide, may be suitable as alternative to synthetic pesticides which are not eco friendly, and toxic to users, for the management of maize stem borers, especially in Nigerian.