Open Access Original Research Article

Passage Rate of Digesta from Soybean Meal, Wheat Bran and Rice Bran Diets with or without a Multi- enzyme Supplementation in Broiler Chickens

A. F. Agboola, A. O. Oke, E. A. Iyayi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25687

The effect of a multi-enzyme (Biomix) supplementation on the rate of feed passage, mean retention time, gut morphology, digesta viscosity and performance of broiler chickens was determined in a 21-day experiment between August and September, 2014.

Two hundred and sixteen one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Of the 6 diets containing soybean meal, wheat bran and rice bran, 3 were supplemented with the enzyme and 3 without enzyme. Each diet had 6 replicates with 6 birds each. Cumulative and non-cumulative excretion data were calculated from excreta chromium concentration. Viscosity was determined in digesta from birds and a section of the ileum removed for measurement of ileal morphological parameters.

Feed type significantly (P = .05) improved body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Time of 50% (T50) and 1% (Tl) chromium excretion were significantly (P = .05) decreased with enzyme addition. Non-cumulative excretion data yielded similar results. Enzyme supplementation significantly (P = .05) reduced retention time by 0.25h and increased (P =.05) feed passage rate, villus height and crypt depth in the chickens. Digesta viscosity was also significantly (P = .05) reduced by enzyme addition.

In conclusion, results of the study showed that enzyme supplementation of diets improved digesta passage through the gut, improved ileal morphological characteristics and performance in broilers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of NPK Treatments on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)) Yields for Biofuel Feedstock in Piedmont Region of North Carolina

Ramesh Ravella, Ashwin Devudigari, Muchha Reddy, Rohn Gehl, Vangimalla Reddy, Godfrey Gayle, Lizun Wang

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/23608

Alternative sources for biofuel production such as juice extracted from sweet sorghum are in high demand and proper nutrient management practices need to be established for growing sweet sorghum in order to maximize profits. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising alternative energy crop. A field experiment was conducted on a North Carolina Piedmont soil to evaluate the production of sweet sorghum as a feedstock for bio-ethanol. Two varieties of sweet sorghum (Dale and M81-E) and four fertilizer treatments (T1: 0, T2: 168-56-168, T3: 84-28-84-soysoap, T4: 168-56-168-Soysoap, of N-P2O5-K2O kg ha-1). The experiment was conducted at the North Carolina A&T research farm in 2011. Dale and M-81-E varieties of sweet sorghum produced significantly higher yields of tops fresh weight and stalk fresh weight from all fertilizer treatments (T2, T3 & T4) than the control (T1). Quantity of juice extracted from stalks was significantly higher for all fertilized treatments compared with the control, but was not affected by variety. No significant difference was observed in total sugar levels in all fertilized treatments. Across all measured variables, T3 gave significantly higher yields than the control but not from T2 or T4. T3 treatment involves half the amount of fertilizer than T2 & T4 and a surfactant effectively cutting fertilizer input expenses by 50%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Transplanting Time and Rainfall on the Establishment, Growth, Development and Yield of Oil Palm in the Semi-deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

S. Anim Okyere, E. Larbi, F. Danso, I. Danso, P. Afari

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/18307

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) establishment, growth and yield depend to a large extent on physical and climatic characteristics of the environment in which the palm is established. A ten (10) year researcher managed on-station experiment was conducted from 1995 to 2005 to assess the effect of transplanting period on the establishment, growth and yield of oil palm in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. Farmers need to know the appropriate time to transplant their seedlings in southern Ghana in order to minimise the seedlings lost at the time of planting. This work seeks to address which month(s) of the year is (are) appropriate to transplant oil palm seedlings in order to achieve high percentage establishment and high yields. In this study, twelve months old Tenera (Dura and Pisifera crosses) from OPRI, -(D x P ex OPRI)- oil palm seedlings were transplanted onto the field in May, July, September and November signifying different moisture/ rainfall regimes of the year. Treatments were arranged in Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 replicates. It was observed that seedlings transplanted in July had better field establishment, growth, development and yield than those in May, September and November. The findings of this study have important ramification for oil palm farmers, extension services and future studies in order to maximise the yield of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB). It is recommended that under current climate variability transplanting of oil palm seedlings should be done in July in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Continuous Deficit Irrigation Efficiency on Young Plum Tree Using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Rachid Razouk, Abdellah Kajji, Mohammed Alghoum, El Houssain Bouichou, Chems Doha Khalfi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26467

This work aimed to improve the efficiency of continuous deficit irrigation (CDI) on plum tree through using symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Thus, an experiment was conducted in pots to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhization on the growth of young plum trees, in two cases of CDI (50% and 75% of full crop evapotranspiration - ETc) compared to full irrigation (100% ETc). We used a mixture of two mycorrhizal fungi species, Rhizoglomus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae. The measurements concerned: 1) morphological parameters of the root system (total fresh weight, total dry weight, total volume and hairy root dry weight); 2) morphological parameters of aerial parts (primary shoot elongation, number of secondary shoots, trunk growth, leaf area, total fresh weight and total dry weight); and 3) nutritional status parameters (leaf phosphorus content and chlorophyll pigments content). Compared to full irrigation, the two CDI levels induced a significant decrease of hairy root percentage without significantly affecting total root weight and volume. The use of AMF enabled to limit this depressive effect because it stimulates root ramification, but this is effective only under moderate water stress (75% of ETc). Under this CDI regime, hairy root percentage has been enhanced by 87% in mycorrhizal plants comparatively to non-mycorrhizal plants. Water stress effects on vegetative growth were partially alleviated using AMF even under severe decrease of irrigation (50% of ETc): shoot elongation was higher for mycorrrhizal plants exceeding non-mycorrhizal ones by an average of 13%. AMF induced also a significant increase of phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll pigments concentration in mycorrhizal plants. Thus, AMF significantly improves CDI efficiency on young plum tree, even at level of 50% of ETc. The observed improvements due to AMF were considerable under 75% of ETc, suggesting the possibility to adopt this CDI level associated with AMF to optimize deficit irrigation on young plants of this rosaceous under low water availability conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-treatment Germination Percentages Affected the Advantage of Priming Treatment in Pepper Seeds

Sıtkı Ermis, Eren Ozden, Ebrima . S Njie, Ibrahim Demir

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26810

This research was conducted to test the benefits of priming treatment and its effects on the pre-treatment germination percentages of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed lots. Germination percentages of 12 pepper seed lots which ranged between 66 and 98% before treatment were treated with 2% of KNO3 solution for 4 days at 20°C. Seed germination percentages, mean germination time, seedling emergence percentages, mean emergence time and seeds that germinated but were unable to emerge from the soil were determined. The treatment was found to be more successful on germination and emergence of seed lots with low germination percentages than those with high germination percentages. The differences between treated and untreated lots concerning all these criteria were higher in lower quality seed lots compared to those of higher quality. Priming reduced the percentage of seeds that germinated in the soil but unable to emerge. Results showed that priming is more useful for enhancing germination of low quality seed lots than higher quality ones which indicates that repair of ageing is one of the primary advantage of the priming treatments. Priming is therefore a suitable pre-sowing treatment that can be used to enhance the quality of left over and relatively lower quality seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics of Pieris brassicae (Pieridae: Lepidoptera) on Different Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.) Genotypes

Amna Sadozai, Imtiaz Ali Khan, Ahmad Ur Rahman Saljoqi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25620

Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate commercially available cauliflower genotypes against Pieris brassicae (Pieridae: Lepidoptera) infestation. This would be helpful in evolving resistant varieties of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.) against P. brassicae.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: was conducted at the Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar during 2012-2014.

Methodology: To study on Population dynamics of Pieris brassicae (Pieridae: Lepidoptera)  ten cauliflower genotypes, i.e. White corona, Snow mystique, Snow grace, Local, Clima, 5340, Sydney, Snow crown, White magic and AX-2034 was used. The treatments were regularly inspected for appearance of pest and data was recorded weekly from appearance of larvae till harvest of crop. In each treatment, five healthy plants of uniform size were randomly selected for data recording. Total number of larvae on upper and lower leaf surfaces was calculated as larvae plant-1. The weight of cauliflower fruits (curd) for each genotype was recorded separately after each picking and total yield was calculated by adding the yield from all picking for each treatment.

Results: The results of field experiments revealed that maximum larval poulation of Pieris brassicae per  plant  were recorded on White magic (361.83 larvae plant-1) and lower on White corona (15.83 larvae plant-1). And no larvae were recorded on Sydney and AX-2034. Population trend of P. brassicae larvae on cauliflower genotypes during 2012-13 greatly fluctuates between 22nd Nov to 14 Feb. During 2013-14, it gives 3 maximum peaks between 11 Oct to 21 Feb. Mean yield of cauliflower for the year 2012-14 was significantly higher  in White Magic (46550 kg ha-1 ) and lower in White Corona (9913 kg ha-1).

Conclusion: It is concluded that all heighted genotypes have more larval population then short height genotypes. White magic was proved itself as a tolerant genotype having more Pieris brassicae larval population per plant but give maximum yield too.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Post-harvest Insect and Mould Infestation of Vigna subterranea

P. T. Nnaji, A. A. Brooks

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/24865

Aims: This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the post harvest insect and moulds that infest Vigna subterranea.

Study Design: The randomized complete block experimental design with three replications for each variety was used to for the assessment of these varieties.

Place and Duration of Study: This research lasted for a period of four months in the University of Calabar, Cross River State Nigeria.

Methodology: Standard microbiological methods were used to obtain pure culture of fungi. Spore head and hyphae were chiefly compared with standard mycological atlas. Insects pest and infested nuts were sent to zoology department for identification of insect.

Results: Four varieties of Vigna subterranea namely; Cream Black Eye Variety (CBEV), Cream No Eye Variety (CNEV), Speckled Flecked Spotted Variety (SFSV) and Brown Variety (BV) were assessed for post harvest insect and mould infestation. Aspergillus niger, Penicillium speciesMucor species, Trichophyton species and Rhizopus species were isolated after plating in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar with antibiotics concentration of 50 µg/1000 ml. growth was not significant at P=0.05, but was significant at P=0.01. Cream black eye variety, brown variety and speckled flecked spotted variety were susceptibility to insect and mould infestation. Cream black eye variety had very high resistance to insect but was susceptible to mould infestation. Callosobruchus maculatus was identified as the insect that carried out the damage in Vigna subterranea.

Conclusion: Insect infestation in V. subterranea can result to increase in fungi growth. Cream no eye variety V. subterranea posses some properties that exhibits resistance to insect.