Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield Attributes of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) Under Wet Temperate Conditions of Western Himalayas (India)

Shahid Rasool, Raihana H. Kanth, Shabana Hamid, Bashir A. Alie, Waseem Raja, Zahoor A. Dar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/16710

A field study was carried out in Experimental Farm of Division of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, J&K, India during kharif 2011 and 2012 to study the influence of integrated nutrient management on yield and yield attributes of sweet corn var. Super-75. The results revealed that yield contributing characters viz., cob length and diameter with and without husk, number of cobs per plant, rows per cob, grains per row and weight of cob with and without husk were significantly higher with application of 75% (NPK) + Farmyard manure (FYM) (4.5 t ha-1) + biofertilizer (Azotobacter + Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) over unfertilized control and other treatments. This treatment also proved to be significantly superior to rest of the treatments including unfertilized control in increasing cob yield with and without husk, fodder yield and green biomass yield during both years of experimentation. The ratio of cob to fodder yield during 2011 was recorded highest in treatment FYM (18 t ha-1), while during 2012, NPK (90:60:40 kg ha-1) recorded the highest ratio of cob to fodder yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Responses of Oryza Species to Saline Condition at Reproductive Growth Stage

R. E. Aliyu, G. Ameh, S. K. Sakariyahu, A. E. Stanley, S. Afeez, A. K. Adamu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26796

Aims: This research aimed at evaluating the response and morphological effects of salt stress on Oryza species at vegetative and reproductive growth stage.

Study Design: Salt tolerance was evaluated by adopting the Standard Evaluation System of IRRI for salt tolerance under modified hydroponic systems.

Place and Duration of Study: The investigations for this study were conducted at AfricaRice Station at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan (Latitude 3°541N and longitude 7°301W), Nigeria and the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Methodology: Forty rice (Oryza sativa (20), Oryza glaberrima (10) Oryza barthii (05) and NERICA (05) genotypes encompassing 20 tolerant and 20 susceptible pre-screened genotypes to salinity stress at seedling growth stage were subjected to salinity stress at early vegetative growth stage. The sensitive (IR29) and tolerant (POKKALI) checks served as controls for susceptibility and tolerance respectively. These genotypes were subjected to salinization with NaCL at EC 8dsm-1 at pH 5.2 till maturity. Plant phenotypic responses were evaluated to ascertain specie response.

Results: Results acknowledged that the effect of salinity on plant growth was genotype and specie dependent. The interactions between genotypes and traits evaluated were highly significant (P< 0.01). Tolerance at seedling stage did not culminate to tolerance at reproductive stage. Phenotypic response to salinity stress at reproductive stages showed strong (p<0.01) negative association between salinity evaluation score (SES) to plant height (r2= -0.5), culm length (r2= -0.5) and filled grain (r2 = -0.5). Salinity stress adversely affected panicle emergence and caused aborted spikelet, thus suppressing rice yield. The grain length of susceptible genotypes increased significantly. A 55% increase in brown rice shape was obtained. Tolerance range for survival at reproductive stage for Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima were 90 and 40% respectively. Oryza barthii and NERICA were most susceptible to salt stress and failed to set seed at reproductive stage. Six (15%) genotypes showed tolerance comparable to the tolerant check at maturity while 7 (17.5%) genotypes were moderately tolerant to salinity. Six susceptible genotypes (15%) with an SES score of 7 at reproductive stage set seed.

Conclusion: The effect of salinity stress on plant growth and yield were genotype and specie dependent. Salinity adversely resulted in reductions in plant biometrics. Degrees of growth plasticity were observed in some genotypes as an escape strategy against salinity. Salt stress induced changes in grain lengths and seed shape. The presence of flag leaf and penultimate leaf or few leaves before panicle initiation determind the genotype ability to set seed at reproductive growth stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response to Nutrient Management during a 3 Year Study of Miscanthus x giganteus

Ramesh Ravella, Matthew Miller, Muccha Reddy, Abolghasem Shahbazi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26907

To accelerate the acclimation of novel crops for bio-energy feedstock supply chain, a pilot study focused on Miscanthus giganteus was conducted in the piedmont area of North Carolina to determine region specific productivity. The main aim of the study was to determine the growth response in biomass accumulation during a 3 year establishment period under different nutrient management practices. Growth response was tested through nutrient application at (5) different fertilizer rates: 0 NPK kg ha-1 (T1), 67 NPK kg ha-1, (T2), 135 NPK kg ha-1 (T3), 202 NPK kg ha-1 (T4), and 269 NPK kg ha-1 (T5). The experimental study took place at NC A&T State University research farm located in Greensboro, NC (Guilford County). “Nutrient Management” P(<.0001/<.0001), “Harvest Year” P (<.0001/<.0001), and the “Interaction Effect” P (0.0002/0.01) were significant factors affecting (Fresh/Dry) matter accumulation observed during 3 consecutive years. Fresh matter was shown to dramatically increase in biomass accumulation with fertilizer treatment T3 during 2013 (17.57±1.74 t ha-1), 2014 (38.51±0.8 t ha-1), and 2015 (45.43±2.91 t ha-1) harvests as compared to the control treatment T1. Dry matter followed a similar trend in which yield was shown to significantly increase at treatment application T3 during 2014 (23.54±0.8 t ha-1), and 2015 (36.15±3.05 t ha-1), as compared to the dry matter yields recovered from treatment application T1 during 2014 (11.02±1.6 t ha-1), and 2015 (26.76±0.64 t ha-1). Treatment T3 has produced significantly higher biomass than T1 & T2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Abundance and Diversity of Insects Associated with Citrus Orchards in Two Different Agroecological Zones of Ghana

Owusu Fordjour Aidoo, Rosina Kyerematen, Clement Akotsen- Mensah, Kwame Afreh- Afreh- Nuamah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26238

We investigated the abundance and diversity of entomofauna associated with citrus orchards in two different agroecological zones of Ghana. Malaise traps, flight interception traps, pitfall traps, chemical ʽʽknock down’’ and visual observation were used for data collection. We recorded a total of 20, 285 individual insects belonging to 387 species from 107 families and 13 orders. Although, several species of insects were common to both agroecological zones, some were more specific to an orchard of a particular zone. Diversity indices such as Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou’s evenness and Margalef index were higher in the Coastal Savannah zone than the Semi-Deciduous Rainforest zone during both the wet and the dry seasons. Oecophylla longinoda Latreille was the most dominant insect species in each agroecological zone, however, they were more abundant in the semi-deciduous rainforest than the Coastal Savannah zone. Our study shows that only 9% of all the 387 insects collected were pests of citrus. This indicates that citrus orchards are potential habitats for insect biodiversity conservation. We therefore recommend that management tactics which have less or no negative effects on natural enemies, pollinators among others but can effectively suppress insect pest populations (such as the use of biological control agents, restriction of herbicides and pesticides) should be adopted. Our study has also provided the first comprehensive inventory of insect species associated with citrus agroecosystems serving as a baseline data for further studies to encourage adoption of economically sound integrated pest management approach for citrus production in Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foliar Spray of Rice Rinsed Water to Tropical High Elevation Grown Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) Increased Sugar Content of Ripe Fruits

I. Gusti Ayu Mas Sri Agung, I. Gusti Made Oka Nurjaya

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/26786

High air temperatures coupled with low light intensity, especially during the last two weeks of fruit ripening, may cause a low sugar content of ripe fruits of high altitude grown strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) in the tropics. An experiment in a plastic house was conducted to examine the effects of two week leaf spray, of rice rinsed water (RRW) containing carbohydrates on sugar content of ripe fruits. Preliminary investigation to measure the size of stomata opening in leaves of strawberry, the size of starch cells and the sugar and starch content in RRW of five varieties of rice, were also conducted. The main experiment in a plastic house, consisted of spraying to fruiting strawberry, five concentrations of RRW viz. 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ml l-1, once a day at 9.00 – 10.00 p.m. Treatments were replicated six times in a randomized complete block design. Rice rinsed water (1.0 g rice: 2.0 ml water) from C4 variety of rice contained 778.9 and 1494.7 μg ml-1sugars and starch, respectively. Stomata opening was 20.25 x 9.36 μm, was larger than starch cells size of   6.0 x 8.1 μm. Average minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment were 15.0 and 25.8°C, respectively. No foliar disorder was observed resulting from the spray. Soluble solid content (SSC) of ripe fruits in plants receiving 10 ml l-1 leaf spray was 5.6%, increased (P = 0.05) 26.08% compared to control 4.6%, while sugars content increased 56.08% from 21135  to 32978 μg g-1 fresh weight. Further increased in concentration of RRW had no effect on SSC and sugar content of fruits. Relationships between concentrations of RRW with SSC and sugar content (μg g-1 fresh fruits) were quadratic.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Nitrogen Dosages on Some Yield and Quality Properties of the Cucumber Grown with in Nutrient Film Technique

Birol Taş

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25499

Aim: The effect of 4 different nitrogen dosages (7, 10, 13 & 16 mM)  on the Plant Height, Dry Matter Yield, Number of Fruit per Plant, Fruit Yield per Plant, and Total Nitrogen Concentration of the Spring S1, which is one of the parthenocarpic hybrid cucumber types grown in Nutrient Film Technique (NFT), has been examined in this study.

Study Design: Four different nitrogen dosages (N7, N10, N13 and N16 mM) were prepared according to the Randomized Block Design with 3 replications. In evaluating the study results, the Minitab 14 statistical package program was used, and the variance analysis Fig was prepared thus making it possible to determine the significance level of the subjects. According to the p<0.05 probability value, the Low Significant Difference Values(LSD) were determined,

Place and Duration of Study: This research, Uludag University Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Parks and Horticulture Application was carried out in greenhouses

Methodology: The plants were germinated in egg-trays, and after they had 3 leaves they were transferred to NFT Units with 12 compartments in which 16 plants were grown and which had the size of 105 cm x 91 cm x 47 cm with 4 pieces of 155 mm x 70 mm growth channel. The Plant Height, Dry Matter Yield (root, body and leaves), Fruit Yield, and Total Nitrogen Amount (root, body and leaves) were analyzed in the study. Plant Height, Dry matter yield and total nitrogen content the plant samples were taken out (collected) with their roots on the 21st, 42nd, and 63rd days after planting. Number of fruit per plant and Fruit yield per plant the plant samples were taken out with their roots on the 42nd, 52nd, 63rd days after planting.

Results: According to the results obtained in the study, the values of the examined characteristics increased until the N13 dosage of the nitrogen; and started to decrease in the N16 dosage, which is the next dosage. While the effect of the nitrogen dosages on the nitrogen concentrations in the roots was not considered as being statistically significant, it was considered as being significant in the stem and leaves.

Conclusion: Generally, it may be suggested that especially the N16 dosage affects the plant negatively in the examined characteristics, and that it almost starts hazardous effect in this dosage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Nitrogen Supply on Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Content and Yield of Improved Rice Varieties under Upland Conditions in Western Kenya

P. A. Sikuku, J. M. Kimani, J. W. Kamau, S. Njinju

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/13859

Rice (Oryza sativa) is a principal staple food crop in Kenya. However, its production is still low due to inherently low and declining soil fertility. This has resulted into food and nutritional insecurity and low living standards. The situation has been compounded by the ever escalating fertilizer prices which has made it unaffordable to most small holder farmers. Although some studies have been done on fertilizer application on some rice varieties, the Mwea upland rice (MWUR) varieties were bred under low fertilizer input environment while other authors have indicated that the New Rice for Africa (NERICA) varieties give high yields under low input conditions. The objective of the research was to establish photosynthetic and yield performance of eight promising improved rice varieties under four nitrogen (N) levels and identify the variety that gives high yields at relatively low N fertilizer rates. Field experiments were carried out at Alupe in western Kenya under rainfed upland condition. The experiment layout was split plot factorial in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. The main plot treatments were four rates of nitrogen fertilizer which were; 0 (control), 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 applied as urea in two equal splits, sub-plots consisted of four MWUR and four NERICA varieties. The parameters measured included chlorophyll content (SPAD Units), photosynthesis, panicle length, yield at 14% moisture content, filled grain ratio percentage and yield components. The measured parameters increased significantly with increase in the level of nitrogen fertilizer. Varietal difference was significant and MWUR varieties recorded higher chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rates and panicle length and yield component at low nitrogen levels (0 and 40 N) as compared to the NERICAs with MWUR 1 and 2 recording higher values. The NERICAs out-yielded the MWUR varieties at higher nitrogen levels. NERICA 4 recorded highest yield among the NERICA varieties regardless of the N level. Results from our study suggested that MWUR 1 and 2 and NERICA 4 were more tolerant to low nitrogen soil as compared to MWUR 3 and 4 and NERICA 1, 10 and 11, because of higher chlorophyll content, higher photosynthetic rate, higher panicle length, higher filled grain ratio percentage and higher yield component and may be suitable for soils deficient in nitrogen.