A series of consumer-oriented workshops were conducted to inform Alabamians about organic agriculture. Workshops (N =10) were conducted by the participation of 257 farmers and consumers in nine Alabama, USA cities using a pretest-posttest procedure, an organic food survey and a questionnaire of purchase intent. The mean posttest score was significantly (p<0.0001) higher than the pretest score (5.6±1.8 vs 4.6±1.9). Seventy three percent of the respondents preferred organic to conventional foods and 35% of them did not know where to purchase organic products. Extra efforts should be made to inform farmers and consumers from Alabama, USA about organic agriculture to create demand and respond to shifting market dynamics especially through the extension system.
Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to study the response of kenaf to early and late cropping seasons in relay intercropping system with cassava-maize based intercrop at Ibadan Research Farm of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation Ibadan. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with 7 treatments and three replications. All data collected from the growth and yield parameters of component crops were subjected to analysis of variance to test the effects of the cropping systems separately using the MSTATC package. Intercropping depressed the weight of 1000 grains, average ear length, average weight of ear/plant and grain yield of maize in both cropping seasons. The values, 0.37 and 0.36 g, 20.3 and 20.0 cm, 193 and 187 g and 3.26 and 3.21 t/ha for the weight of 1000 grains, average ear length, average weight of ear/plant and grain yield in in both cropping seasons for sole maize were the highest. Intercropping affected the plant height at harvest, weight of tuber per plant, average weight of tuber per plant and tuber yield of cassava in both cropping seasons. The highest values, 229.5 and 225.4 cm cassava plant height at harvest observed under cassava/maize/kenaf intercrop in this study. The values, 3.30 and 3.17 kg, 747.8 and 733.5 g and 19.8 and 20.6 t/ha for the weight of tuber per plant, average weight of tuber per plant and tuber yield in 2013 and 2014 respectively for cassava/kenaf relayed with maize were not significantly different from the values, 3.70 and 3.56 kg, 728.8 and 721.8 g and 21.3 and 19.7 t/ha for the weight of tuber per plant, average weight of tuber per plant and tuber yield in both cropping seasons for cassava/maize relayed with kenaf. Plant height at harvest and basal diameter at harvest were significantly affected by cropping system in both years of the experimentation with the kenaf plants under sole cropping in both years attaining highest plant height and basal diameter, these were not significantly different from plants under cassava/kenaf relayed with maize in both cropping seasons. The least values, 228.4 and 227.6 cm recorded for plant height at harvest and 1.73 and 1.67 cm recorded for basal diameter in 2013 and 2014 respectively were obtained from cassava/maize/kenaf intercrop. Kenaf plants grown under cassava/maize relayed with kenaf gave the significantly highest seed yield values,856.7 and 879.9 kg/ha in 2013 and 2014 respectively compared to sole cropping of kenaf that gave seed yield values 707.9 and 712 kg/ha in 2013 and 2014 respectively. On average, the three crops combination systems recorded the least values for the fiber yield followed by cassava/maize relayed with kenaf. Mixture productivity (LER) indicated that the cassava/maize/kenaf intercrop recorded the highest values, 1.68 and 1.66 in in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The values were not significantly different from the values recorded for relayed intercropping systems in both years. Whenever either high yield and good quality fiber or high yield and good quality seeds is important in intercropping system that consists kenaf as one of the component crops, relay intercropping system is essential for adoption. Either cassava/kenaf relay with maize or cassava/maize relay with kenaf is recommended to the farmers in the study area.
Aims: This study aims to determine the short term effects during off-season of pre-wetted straw and urea incorporation on lowland rice field soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions using climate change adaptation food security mitigation option tool (CCAFS-MOT) model.
Study Design: The experiment was performed using a Randomized Complete Block Design.
Place and Duration of Study: Nigeria, Niger State, Bida local Government from April to July 2015.
Methodology: Integrated formulations of rice straw and urea at different rates respectively: 2, 3 and 4 t/ha and 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha were used with one check plot (C) (without straw and urea). The experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design, and ten (10) integrated formulations (treatments) were used with four (04) replications. Each replication, was made of ten (10) plots giving a total number of forty (40) plots. The effect of treatments on the following variables; Soil Organic Carbon Density Gain per Year (SOCDG/year, kg/ha) and GHGs emissions (kg/ha) were determined in order to identify the best treatments. Data collected were analyzed using GenStat 16.2 and CCAFS-MOT 1.0 for SOC balance. Matlab 11.0 and Excel 2013 were also used for data processing and graphs. Significance and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test were performed at 95%.
Results: Results indicated significance difference of treatments on each parameter evaluated. SOCDG increase is function of the quantity of straw and urea incorporated (Fpr. <0.001). Moreover, the study revealed three best treatments (T2, T4 and T5). Their responses (TR, %) to Soil Organic Carbon Density Gain per Year (SOCDG/year, kg/ha) have increased up to 43%. Potential carbon sequestration estimated by the CCAFS-MOT was about 44.4% for the improved practices identified with 0% methane emission and scanty nitrous oxide emission up to 31.3%. These results give strong evidence concerning the use of pre-wetted technique as panacea to both mitigate climate change and enhance croplands productivity and resilience to these changes in Niger State, Nigeria.
Conclusion: Pre-wetted straw and urea application can help to deplete greenhouse gas emission and enhance carbon on agricultural lands. However, additional trials are needed before validation of the method under different agro ecological conditions in west African zones.
Aims: Relationships between areas of monopodial and sympodial leaves reported in the literature suggest a consistent size gradient among leaves along the sympodial branches of cotton plants. The objective of this study is to assess how well a non-destructive procedure based on these relationships can estimate leaf area of cotton plants.
Study Design: Randomized complete block with 6 replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Drought Tolerance Laboratory at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center near Corpus Christi, TX and at the Texas AgriLife Field Laboratory in Burleson County located 12.9 km west of College Station, TX between February 2014 and July 2015.
Methodology: In 2014, plants from four different cultivars were sampled at the Drought Tolerance Laboratory at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi in order gather data to develop the methodology. Four cotton cultivars included PHY 375, PHY499, DPL912, and DPL1044. The inclusion of four cultivars had the purpose of incorporating variability in the data to be used for developing the empirical model to estimate WPLA, thus making it more robust. In 2015, field- and lab-grown plants were sampled to evaluate the accuracy of the non-destructive method to estimate whole-plant leaf area.
Results: The results indicated that the methodology overestimated the leaf area of the field-grown plants, while underestimated that of lab-grown plants. However, estimated vs. observed deviations from the 1:1 line were not significant.
Conclusion: It is concluded that despite inconsistencies in leaf area ratios across sympodial branches, the non-destructive method developed still has the potential to be utilized to estimate the leaf area of cotton plants when no leaf area measurement equipment is available.
The low fertility constraint of the soils in the northern Guinea savannah of Nigeria necessitates the application of external nutrient supplements for sustainable crop production. An incubation study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of Moringa Seed Powder (MSP) and Liquid Gold (LG) on available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) pools of a P-deficient soil. Treatments consisted of four rates at 0, 5, 10 and 20 tons per hectare (tha-1) of the MSP and four (0, 10, 15 and 20 tha-1) of the LG. The treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design in a screen house. Significant (P˂.0001) increase in the available P and K was observed. Treatment L1M4 had significantly improved P and K pools of the soil. Treatments L1M4 (0 ml LG+20 tha-1 MSP), L2M4 (10 ml LG+20 tha-1 MSP) and L3M4 (15 ml LG+20 tha-1 MSP) can, however, be used as fertilizer for leguminous crops as they contain substantial levels of P and K. Treatment L1M1 (0 ml LG+0 tha-1 MSP), however, recorded the least levels of the P and K in its nutrients pool, probably be due to absence of organic amendments. All the parameters, however, recorded significant (P˂.0001) correlation with one another. This study, therefore, revealed that MSP and LG have substantial amount of nutrients and high residue quality that can be used as organic nutrient source. More research work on the impact of the treatments on other nutrients and soil properties will contribute to a sustainable soil fertility management program.
A new strobilurin group of fungicide, pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS (Seltima 100 g/l CS) was evaluated for its bio-efficacy against rice leaf blast disease under field condition during Kharif 2013 and 2014 at Agricultural research station, Gangavathi, Karnataka, India. The test fungicide, pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS was found effective against leaf blast disease which recorded least percent disease index (PDI) of 14.20 and 16.48 @ 75 g a.i./h and @ 100 g a.i./h, respectively. Other fungicides such as tricyclazole 75 WP (300 g/h), Carbendazim 50 WP (500g/h) and Isoprothiolane 40 EC (750 ml/h) recorded significantly more PDI than pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS. Due to difference in the PDI of leaf blast disease, different treatments recorded statistically significant yield differences. The highest yield (67.78 q/h) was recorded in the treatment of pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS @ 75 g a.i./h followed by the same chemical @ 100 g a.i./h (66.87 q/h). Therefore, pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS (Seltima 100 g/l CS) @ 75-100 g a.i/h can be used for effective management of leaf blast disease.
Aims: The possibilities of running a bio-ethanol plant from rice straw in the Kanto region in Japan have been assessed in a project named “Development of Technologies for Biofuel Production Systems in Rural Areas (2012-2015)” funded by MAFF. Aims of the present study are to estimate yielding ability of fall-sown cereals especially triticale and oat on upland fields in the context of multipurpose production.
Study Design: Randomized block design of two treatments (crops and seasons) with three replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: Central Region Agricultural Research Center, NARO (Tsukuba, Japan), three years.
Methodology: (1) Sampling of planted crops, (2) Analysis of meteorological data.
Results: Significant interactions between crops by seasons were observed with height (P < 0.001), effective tillers per area (P < 0.01), percentage of effective tillers in fresh weight (P = 0.05) and above-ground dry matter yield (P < 0.001). Above-ground dry matter yield of rye did not differ between three seasons, while that of two-row barley, triticale and oat significantly differed between seasons. For example, triticale produced the greatest (1538 g m-2) and the lowest yield (394 g m-2) in 2014/2015 and 2012/2013, respectively. Similarly oat yield in Kannondai was the lowest in 2012/2013 when soil temperature at 5 cm depth recorded at or below 1°C for as many as 135 hours compared with 20 hours and 26 hours in 2013/2014 and in 2014/2015, respectively.
Conclusion: A hypothesis was suggested that fluctuations in above-ground dry matter yield observed between three seasons with two-row barley, triticale and oat produced on upland fields could be explained at least partly from the low soil temperature records observed in 2012/2013.