Open Access Short Research Article

Phenotypic Variation Analysis of Sweet Potato Germplasm Resources from Different Agro-climate Zones in the World

Wenjin Su, Yi Liu, Jian Lei, Lianjun Wang, Shasha Chai, Chunhai Jiao, Xinsun Yang

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/28260

The objectives of this research were to study the phenotypic diversity of sweet potato germplasm collections using 16 agro-morphological traits. A field experiment was done with 123 cultivated varieties of sweet potato. The varieties were grown at the research farm of Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiangxia District, Wuhan, China in the year 2015. They were evaluated in a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Estimates of phenotypic variation found immature leaf color, mature leaf color, predominant color of vine and petiole pigmentation were in high similarity, whereas other traits demonstrated more genetic variation. The coefficient of variance in yield and dry matter content was 54.74% and 13.98%, respectively, this indicated that yield and dry matter content was liable to have environmental influences. Person correlation analysis was conducted to illustrate the interrelationships among the traits, the results showed that base of leaf vien pigmentation had highest correlation (r=0.848) with predominant color of leaf vien. Base of leaf vien pigmentation, base of petiole pigmentation and predominant color of leaf vien had significant positive correlations with yield. Number of central leaf lobes and immature leaf color had negative impacts on dry matter content. Principal component analysis extracted five principal components, contributed 66.05% of the total variability. The hierarchical cluster analysis based on five extracted principal components resulted in a dendrogram which was discordant with geographic origin. The sweet potato varieties in this study showed a high level of phenotypic diversity. This study could provide a reference for future research and have elucidated the phenotypic diversity that existed in sweet potato.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Baseline Survey on Cattle Imports through Different Peripheral Areas of Bangladesh

Razia Khatun, Shamim Ahmed, Md. Amirul Hasan, Md. Nazrul Islam, A. S. M. Ashab Uddin, Mohammad Showkat Mahmud

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/27486

This research program was undertaken to find out the existing cattle marketing scenario,  problem and prospects in 11 (eleven) different busiest land ports areas (Hilli, Benapole, Banglabandha, Bhurimari, Sonamasjid, Bibir Bazar, Birol, Meherpur, Bhomra, Bilonia and Baliadungia of Bangladesh. The land port were randomly selected where most of exported and imported goods were marketed. Data collection was made during October, 2013 to May 2014. Different stakeholders from each land port were considered as respondents (Direct importer, local market trader, ULO officials, customs and BGB officials, local people and authority) where 37 responded for each port, those who were involved directly or indirectly in livestock marketing. A total of 407 responded covering 11 ports were firstly interviewed through face to face interviewed following pre-designed structure questionnaire, cross checked and finally analyzed using simple descriptive statistical tools. The data so far obtained that around 30-40% imported cattle were legal and the rest illegal. When source of origin considered for imported cattle found 98% Indian and 2% Nepalese. Out of 98% Indian cattle, 88.90% were local type, 8.73% were Hariana and 2.1% were Shindi and type of species cases 88.64% found cattle 11.36% found buffaloes and rest of horse, camel, sheep. For disease perspective the rate of disease prevalence in surveyed area found 88.18% FMD; 5.0% Diarrhoea; 4.33% parasite infestation and 2.29% BQ. During illegal transportation,  traders were paid @ Tk 500, 200 and 6000 as revenue charge for each cattle/buffalo, sheep/goat and horse, respectively. So for saving our own cattle resource from trans-boundary disease like FMD, Anthrax, need to be measured immediate livestock movement control, effective ring vaccination, proper quarantine procedures at each entry points and establishment of a buffer zone. Finding of this research helps to generate a meaningful data base, making as guideline for policy maker, researchers addressing sustainable cattle marketing system with a view to benefit of  total cattle production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Maize (Zea mays L.) Quality Factors from Five Agro-ecological Zones in Ghana and Their Impact on Growth and Grain Yield

Kebede Fekadu, Charles Kwoseh, B. K. Maalekuu, Joseph Sarkodie Addo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/25439

This experiment was conducted in the field and laboratory to evaluate the impact of seed quality attributes on emergence, germination, growth and grain yield. Obatanpa (local maize) seeds produced under certified and farmer-saved seeds in five agro-ecological zones were collected for five agro-ecological zones were used. After the land was slashed by cutlass, ploughed and harrowed the experiment was done 2x5 factorial randomized complete block design with four replications at the spacing of 80x40 cm with three seeds per hill one seedling thinned later two weeks after planting. Seed quality parameters moisture content, purity analysis, germination, and fungus associations with the seeds were determined in the Pathology lab, Department of Crop and Soil sciences using randomized complete design (RCD) in three replications. Results from tests in the laboratory showed that seed moisture content, purity, germination, and fungus associations with the seeds were impact on emergence, growth and yields of maize. The certified seed system gave higher yields than farmer-saved seeds across the agro-ecological zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Quality, Nutrient Content and Uptake of Sweet Corn (Zea mays var. saccharata)

Shahid Rasool, Shabana Hamid, Raihana H. Kanth, M. H. Khan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/27729

A field study was carried out at Experimental Farm of Division of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, J&K, India during kharif 2013 and 2014 to study the influence of integrated nutrient management on quality, nutrient content and uptake of sweet corn. The experiment comprising of 12 treatments including organic and inorganic fertilizers was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Sweet corn variety Super-75 was used as an experimental material. The results revealed that the quality parameters viz, sugar, starch, protein and vitamin C content were significantly highest in treatment 75% (NPK) + FYM (4.5 t ha-1) + biofertilizer (Azotobacter + PSB), whereas unfertilized control recorded significantly lowest values of these parameters. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content and uptake showed significant and consistent improvement with application of 75% (NPK) + FYM (4.5 t ha-1) + biofertilizer (Azotobacter + PSB), however, significantly lowest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content and uptake were obtained under unfertilized control during experimentation years. Hence, it is concluded  that application of 75 % (NPK) + FYM (4.5 t ha-1) + Biofertilizer (Azotobacter + PSB) is significantly superior in terms of quality parameters viz., sugar, starch, vitamin C, protein content and NPK content and uptake as against unfertilized control and various other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Studies of Agronomic and Physiological Traits in Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum Mill.) Under Heat Stress Conditions

H. S. Hamisu, S. G. Ado, M. Y. Yeye, I. S. Usman, S. O. Afolayan, M. G. Bala, A. Usman, J. J. Yaduma, B. A. Idris, M. Y. Gwammaja, S. M. Muhammad, A. H. Hudu, Y. D. Giginyu, J. I. Aliyu, A. U. Idris

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/28424

Field experiments were conducted at National Horticultural Research Institute, Bagauda (11°33´N; 8°23´E) in the Sudan Savannah and Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru (11°11´N; 07°38’E) in the Northern Guinea Savanna ecological zones of Nigeria between July-October, 2014 rainy season to estimate Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV), Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV), heritability, Genetic Advance (GA) and Genetic Advance as percent of Mean (GAM) for agronomic and physiological traits of tomato under heat stress conditions. The study comprised 15 hybrids, their parental lines along with four checks were laid out in partially balanced lattice design with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes for all traits except fruit diameter, indicating sufficient variability existed among the genotypes. The estimates of PCV were higher than GCV. High GCV and PCV values were recorded for number of clusters per plant, and number of fruits per plant suggesting high genetic variability for these traits. Broad-sense heritability varied from 5.20% to 98.92%, while the estimates of GA showed a wide range from 0.09 to 161.13. High estimates of Broad-sense heritability coupled with high GAM were observed for the number of clusters per plant, number of flowers per cluster, number of fruits per cluster, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit shape index and yield per plant indicating additive gene effects for the hereditary pattern of roles. Based on the results of the study, simple selection based on phenotypic performance of these traits would provide better response and also considered for higher fruit yield under heat stress conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Lime and Nitrogen on Properties of an Acidic Soil and Nutrient Content of Sugarcane under Sugarcane – Soybean Intercropping in Kenya

sugarcane leaves., Ernest Semu, John Msaky, Philip Owuor

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/28153

Acidified soils are a constraint to crop production due to imbalance in availability of essential plant nutrients. Liming is known to increase soil pH, however, efficient use is critical to ensure cost effective use. Therefore, determination of efficient lime application method including lime rates and nitrogen rates was the basis of the study. A field study was conducted to investigate whether lime placement methods (LPM), lime rates (LR) and nitrogen rates (NR) for intercropped sugarcane with soybean under acid soils leads to increased soil pH and also soil and sugarcane leaf nutrient status. Split – split plot randomized complete block arrangements was employed. The main plots were; LPM (lime broadcasted [L-BC], lime shallow banded, 0 – 15 cm [L-SB] and lime deep banded, 15 – 30 cm [L-DB]). Sub plots were lime rates (0, 1 and 2 t ha-1) and sub – sub plots were N rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). Lime rates significantly affected soil pH for both the 0 – 15 cm and 15 – 30 cm soil depth. Lime rate, 2 t ha-1 led to the highest soil pH. Lime placement methods interaction with LR significantly affected soil pH, N, P, Fe, OC and CEC for 0 – 15 cm depth. This interaction also affected soil pH, N, Mg and OC for 15 – 30 cm depth. LPM alone did not affect soil chemical properties for 0 – 15 cm depth but affected soil pH and N for 15 – 30 cm depth. Some soil chemical properties, specifically, exchangeable calcium (Ca), extractable manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and soil OC were affected by the LR but not the LPM. LPM affected sugarcane leaf total K, Ca, Mn and Zn while the LR affected total N and Mg. Lime shallow banded and lime broadcasted led to highest content of these nutrients in sugarcane leaves. Lime rate 2 t ha-1 is recommended for use to ameliorate soil acidity for acidified Cambisols soils of Kibos, Kisumu County, Kenya. Lime broadcasting or lime banding at shallow 0 – 15 cm soil depth should be used as a lime placement method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) as Influenced by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers

Shahid Rasool, Shabana Hamid, M. H. Khan

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJEA/2016/27689

Aims: To study the growth and yield of lentil as influenced by organic (Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria) and inorganic fertilizers (four levels of phosphorus viz., 0, 20, 40 & 60 kg P205/ha and recommended dose of nitrogen and potassium)

Study Design: Randomized block design (RBD) with three replications

Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2012-2013 at Agronomy Research Farm, CSKHPKV, Palampur, HP, India.

Methodology: The experiment consisted of 16 treatments comprising of four levels each of biofertilizer (UI= uninoculated, InRh= inoculation with Rhizobium, InPSB= inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria & InRh +PSB= inoculation with both Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria) and phosphorus (0, 20, 40 & 60 kg P205/ha).

Results: Seed and straw yield of lentil was significantly influenced by the different treatments. Significantly higher yield of lentil was obtained in the plots sown with inoculated seed over uninoculated seed (UI). Higher seed as well as straw yield was recorded in the plots treated with phosphorus application over control (Po). Combined inoculation with Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria produced the highest seed and straw yield. The highest yield was recorded in the plots received phosphorus 60 kg P205per hectare but the maximum response (kg seed/ kg P205) was at P40. Interaction between biofertilizers and phosphorus levels was also significant in respect of seed as will as straw yield. The maximum yield was recorded in the plots sown with inoculated seed with both biofertilizers and applied 60 kg P205 per ha (InRh+PSB + P60).

Conclusion: The study concluded that lentil responded better to phosphorus application upto 60 kg P205/ha in combination with seed inoculation with Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria.