The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of antibiotic and bio-fungicide for control of seed borne fungi of wheat during November to April. 2015-2016. In this study, two treatments viz. Control, Aureofungin (Antibiotic) with 100 ml water, and Allium sativum leaf extract with cow urine (Bio-fungicide) for control of seed borne fungi of wheat, In the pot experiment, The result was obtained as a control 63.20%, and disease incidence of 23.30% which were recorded from Allium sativum leaf extract with cow urine (Bio-fungicide) in the Treatment 3 whereas control 47.41% and disease incidence 33.33% were recorded from 4 gm. Aureofungin (Antibiotic) with 100 water in the Treatment 2. In the pots, the control was 68.75%, and as disease incidence 20% which were recorded from Allium sativum leaf extract with cow urine (Bio-fungicide) in the Treatment 3 whereas control was 52.09% and disease incidence was 30.66% which were recorded from 4 gm. Aureofungin with 100 ml water (Antibiotic) in the T 3. Bio-fungicide was found to be superior in controlling of seed borne fungi of wheat comparing with antibiotic. A bio-fungicide is composed of beneficial microorganisms, such as specialized fungi that attack and control plant pathogens and the diseases.
Twenty four Pongamia pinnata genotypes were screened out at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during 2014 and 2015 to elucidate the relationship between seed physical and physiological traits on seed storability and to select best genotype with long storage life. Genotype TOIL 2 recorded maximum values for two traits viz., seed thickness (8.99 mm) and 3D seed volume (3057 mm3), TOIL 12 for seed storability (85% germination) and test weight (151.37 g) and TOIL 5 for initial seed germination (100%). Coefficients of variations observed were high for seed germination, moderate for seed width, thickness and 100 seed weight but seed length recorded with low variation. Broad sense heritability estimates ranged from 55.4% (for seed length) to 99.9% (100 seed weight), genetic advance as per cent of mean ranged between 8.91 (for seed length) to 126.42 (for seed germination after storage). Seed storability exhibited positive significant correlation with initial seed germination and 100 seed weight at both phenotypic and genotypic levels whereas, seed thickness exhibited positive significant correlation only at genotypic level. Path analysis revealed that initial seed germination (g=0.695; p=0.667) is contributing directly to seed storability followed by 100 seed weight (g=0.440; p=0.266) and seed length (g=0.048; p=0.044). Whereas, seed thickness showed directly negative effect (g= -0.304; p= -0.143) on seed storability. Out of five clusters, cluster-I and cluster-II showed more genotypes, 15 and 5, respectively. 100 seed weight contributed more towards genetic diversity of Pongamia followed by seed germination after storage. The cluster V recorded maximum cluster mean for four seed physical parameters, while cluster III for seed germination and crosses among them may result in substantial segregates and further selection for overall improvement of species and its seed storability.
Two field experiments were carried out at Research Station, El-Sharkia Governorate, ARC, Egypt during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons to investigate the effect of relay intercropping cotton with some winter crops as compared with sequential solid plantings of these crops on the productivity, land equivalent ratio and net returns from these systems. The split plot design with three replications was used. Two cotton cultivars were grown in the main plots, while cropping systems were allocated in sub-plots as follows: relay intercropping cotton with faba bean and wheat at 20th March, faba bean and wheat were grown with two population densities. These treatments were compared with growing cotton after Egyptian clover each of 20th March, 20th April and 20th May, as well as, faba bean at 20th April and wheat at 20th May in solid plantings. Intercropping cotton with faba bean and wheat lead to significant reductions in yields of these crops. The results showed that cotton cultivar Giza 86 had higher seed cotton yield than Giza 90. Intercropping cotton with faba bean at 20th March as well gave higher yield, also it had the same effects of cotton characters grown in sequential solid plantings at 20th April after faba bean and after Egyptian clover at 20th March. Intercropping cotton with wheat at 20th March had the same values of cotton characters of traditional culture. Late planting date of cotton (20th May) as followed after Egyptian clover or wheat caused significant reductions in cotton characters as compared with those grown in the early date. Low plant densities of faba bean or wheat decreased their effects on cotton characters under relay intercropping. Also, cotton cultivars and the interactions between cotton cultivars and cropping systems had insignificant effects on yield of preceding crops (faba bean and wheat), while cropping systems had significant effects on yield of wheat and faba bean. Solid planting of wheat in two rows/ridge (S10) has the highest grain yield; also, solid planting of faba bean in high density has the highest seed yield. All intercropping systems gave advantages in LERs as compared with sequential cropping systems where it ranged from 1.9 to 2.81 of S2 and S4 respectively. The results revealed that cotton cultivar Giza 86 had higher values of economic returns than cultivar Giza 90.
Aims: To determine the occurrence of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in faecal samples from representative food-producing bovine animals in Trinidad and Tobago.
Study Design: This was a prospective cross sectional observational laboratory based study.
Place and Duration of Study: Bovine faecal samples were collected from selected food animal farms located in the twin island of Trinidad and Tobago and processed at the Microbiology laboratories at the Veterinary School, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies Campus, from March to May 2014.
Materials and Methods: 205 cattle faecal samples collected from 12 animal farms across Trinidad & Tobago were analyzed for E. coli bacteria. Using conventional and molecular microbiology laboratory techniques, 160 recovered E. coli isolates from these samples were then screened for possession of the intimin (eae), Shiga toxin 1 (stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (stx2) genes.
Results: Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) genes were detected in 9.4% (15/160) of E. coli isolates analyzed by molecular methods. Overall, 1.3% of the isolates were positive for the intimin (eae) gene; 6.6% for stx1 and 7.3% for stx2 toxins genes. All detected STEC positive isolates, however did not belong to any of the most known O serogroups associated with Shiga toxin genes; and were also all negative for Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) genes (espA, tir and escN).
Conclusion: There is low occurrence of E. coli producing stx1 and stx2 (STEC) genes in Trinidad and Tobago. STEC in the country is not associated with the seven most common serogroups or the LEE genes. This information has never been reported in Trinidad and Tobago before and therefore present a novel contribution to the epidemiology of STEC in the country and Caribbean region.
A field experiment was conducted at Experimental Station of CSIR-IIIM, Srinagar, J&K, India during kharif 2013 and 2014. The experiment was laid in a randomized block design with 4 weed management practices viz., W0= No weeding, W1 = Hand weeding 20 and 50 days after sowing, W2 = atrazine @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 PRE + hand weeding 20 days after sowing and W3 = atrazine @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 PRE + Isoproturon @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 POST. The results revealed that weed management practices W2 at par with W3 significantly improved plant height, number of functional leaves, leaf area index and dry matter production at different growth stages as compared to W0, whereas W2 took significantly more number of days for the crop to reach different phenological stages over rest of the treatments including control during both years of study. Similarly, W2 being at par with W3 recorded significant improvement in all yield contributing characters over W1 and W0. Both grain and stover yields were also significantly higher with W2 over W1 and W0. Significantly higher biological yield and harvest index was recorded with W3 as compared to the rest of treatments during both the years of experimentation.
Aims: To evaluate the performance of eight potato varieties and identify the best variety under litchi based Agroforestry system.
Study Design: The treatments were laid out with two factors RCBD following three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at Agroforestry Research Farm, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur during November 2014 to March 2015.
Methodology: There are two factors, factor A was two production systems; S1= Litchi + potato and S2=Potato sole cropping, another factor B was eight potato varieties; V1=Diamond, V2= Cardinal V3=Asterix, V4=Carage, V5=Lady Rosetta, V6=Granula, V7=Raza and V8=4.26R. Data are collected on plant height, leaf length, leaf breath, no. of leaf per shoot, no. of shoot per hill and yield ton/ha.
Results: The result of the experiment revealed that there was a significant effect of different variety and production systems on the growth and yield contributing characters of potato. Significant effect of eight potato varieties and production system was found on the plant height, leaf length, leaf breath, no. of leaf per shoot, no. of shoot per hill and yield. The highest tuber yield (18.88 tha-1) was recorded in Lady Rosetta potato variety whereas the lowest tuber yield (12.29 tha-1) was recorded in Diamond.
Conclusion: The suitability of the cultivation of different potato variety under litchi based Agroforestry systems may be ranked as Lady Rosetta> Granula> Asterix> Carage >Raza> 4.26 R > Cardinal > Diamond.
The present experiment was conducted to evaluate intake, digestibility and growth performances of local growing bulls fed Moringa plant fodder or Australian Sweet Jumbo alone keeping Maize silage as control and to scaling up the available roughages. Eighteen BLRI Cattle Breed-1(BCB-1) growing bulls of 103.8±25.5 Kg live weight were randomly allocated to three dietary groups designed in a completely randomized design, having six animals in each group. The three experimental diets were Australian Sweet Jumbo silage and Moringa foliages considered as treatments and Maize silage keeping as control. Daily DM intake of bulls fed Moringa foliage was significantly higher (p<0.01) than those fed with Maize or AS Jumbo. A similar trend in CP (p<0.001) and OM (p<0.01) intake was found among the roughages. Compared feeding with AS Jumbo silage, the relative DM intake was increased (p<0.01) by 11.79 and 26.02 per cent, respectively for bulls fed Maize and Moringa foliages. The digestible DM, DCP, DE, ME and MP intake was significantly higher (p<0.001) in bulls fed with Moringa than the bulls fed with other roughages. Digestibility coefficient of nutrients reflected that Moringa foliage had the highest DM, CP, or OM digestibility, and they were significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of Maize or AS Jumbo. However, AS Jumbo fed bulls had a significantly (P<0.01) lower digestibility of DM, OM or CP. Maize had the highest NDF digestibility compared to other two roughages. However, the ADF digestibility of Maize, AS Jumbo and Moringa foliage did not differ significantly (p>0.05). Feeding Moringa foliage had significantly (p<0.05) higher average daily gain of 376 g compared to 289g of Maize or 218 g of AS Jumbo with an average feed conversion efficiency of 8.85, 11.52 and 13.08 respectively. It was concluded that Moringa oleifera had higher nutritional significance and less cost of production compared to Maize and Australian Sweet (AS) Jumbo silages.
A field experiment was conducted at south farm, of Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi, Tamil Nadu. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with nine treatments and three replications. Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia swingle) is an important commercial species of citrus considered to be indigenous to India, and is extensively cultivated in almost all states of India under tropical and subtropical climatic conditions. In the present investigation, the highest number of fruits per tree was observed in T3- Panchakavya - 5% (380.80) followed by T1- IAA - 50 ppm (350.30). The highest mean fruit weight was observed in T3- Panchakavya - 5% (53.60) followed by T1- IAA - 50 ppm (50.40). The treatment T3- Panchakavya - 5% was recorded the highest per tree yield (20.41 kg) followed by T1- IAA - 50 ppm (17.65). the highest fruit length was noticed in T3- Panchakavya - 5% (6.50 cm) followed by T1- IAA - 50 ppm (5.53 cm), the highest fruit girth was noticed in T3- Panchakavya - 5% (6.86 cm) and also the highest fruit volume was recorded in T3- Panchakavya - 5% (51.20 ml) followed by T1- IAA -50 ppm (48.85 ml). In this investigation, the highest Juice content (ml/100 g) was noticed in T3- Panchakavya - 5% (55.0 ml), the highest ascorbic acid content was recorded in T3- Panchakavya - 5% (35.65 mg/100 g) and the highest acidity was recorded in T4- Vemivash – 5 ml (7.25%).
Despite the rigorous vaccination programs, outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) are often reported in vaccinated as in unvaccinated flocks. This study evaluated antibody (Ab) response following vaccination against Newcastle disease in three Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos State. A total of five hundred and twenty eight sera were collected and tested for NDV antibody using Haemagglutination- inhibition test. The three Local Government Areas (LGAs) were: Epe, Etiosa and Ojo of Lagos state, Nigeria. One hundred and three samples were negative and the mean Ab titre ranged from 2.86±2.92 to 5.19±3.00. Etiosa had a total of two hundred and forty six sera tested with forty one negative samples and a mean Ab titre of 5.19±3.00 and mode of 6 log₂. It had 25.1% of Ab titre of unprotective level at ≤3 log₂ and 74.9% of protective level at ≥4log₂. Antibody titre at protective level across the age distribution was recorded at 80.0%, 60.0% and 78.9% in Chicks, Growers and Layers respectively. The risk factors identified in Etiosa were rodent infestation 1.75, lizard infestation 2.00 and carcass disposal 1.82. A total of one hundred and twenty nine sera were tested for ND Ab in Epe with fifty seven negative samples and mean Ab titre of 5.63±2.15 and mode of 5 log₂. The number of samples with antibody titre at ≤ 3 log₂ was 15.0% and 85% sera at ≥4 log2. The age distribution of Ab titre at protective level was recorded at 76.7% in growers and 74.4% in layers while about 25.6 % in layers and 23.3% in Growers were unprotected. The risk factors identified were unmanned gate 2.10, Feed Spillage 2.10, Fly infestation 3.00, Carcass disposal 2.00 and backyard poultry 2.10. A total of one hundred and twenty two sera were tested in Ikorodu and fifty samples were negative with a mean antibody titre of 2.86±2.92. It had 54.3% antibody titre at ≥3 log2 and 45.7% at ≥4 log₂. It recorded percentage age distribution of unprotected antibody titre of 65.0 % in grower and 52.3% in layers. While 35.0% in growers and 47.7% in layers had protective antibody titre. Risk factors identified were unmanned gate 2.30, rodent infestation 2.30, lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) 2.40 and risky visitors 1.80.
Conclusion, birds in Epe were better immune from Newcastle disease compared to Etiosa and Ikorodu in that order. Ikorodu recorded highest number of farms with risk factors and at risk of outbreak of Newcastle disease compared to Epe and Etiosa.
Brown leaf spot disease is the most serious disease of rice. 25 varieties were screened against brown leaf spot caused by Helminthosporium oryzae during session (Kharif) 2014 and 2015. The results were four varieties recorded viz. NDR-359, CR-1, CR-2 and N-18 in highly resistant. Seven varieties were recorded viz. PR-103, IR-36, Prasd, Narendra-2, IR-597, OC-1339 and Cross-116 in resistant. Six varieties were recorded viz. IET-849, Pusa NR-381, Narendra-80, Narendra Dhan-97, Jalnidhi and Jallahari in moderately resistant. Three varieties were recorded viz. Rupali, MTU-7029 and Sweta in moderately susceptible. IET-2969 and Annapurna was recorded in susceptible. Three varieties were recorded viz. Nagina-22, CR-126 and Cauvery highly susceptible in all three screening conditions, i.e. laboratory, pot and field. In view of present investigation, it provides a useful information to the farmers by which they can use these varieties which are resistant to brown leaf spot disease of paddy. This may increase the productivity and save the economy of farmers.