The yield stability of eight taro (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott) genotypes across two locations in two years was assessed using the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) and Genotype and Genotype-by-Environment (GGE) biplot models. The results of combined analysis of variance for the yield of the taro genotypes grown in 4 environments showed that yield was significantly affected by environments (E), genotypes (G) and genotype by environment interactions (GEI). Differences between genotypes and environments accounted for 24.13% and 56.41% of the total variation respectively while genotype x environment interaction accounted for 9.03% of the total variation. The first interaction principal component axis (IPCA) from the AMMI analysis accounted for 71.10% of variation due to GEI. The biplot accounted for 97.09% of the treatment sum of squares. Both AMMI and GGE models identified NCe 005, NCe 011 and NCe 010 as most stable, but NCe 010 with the highest yield was rated the best genotype across the environments. As a result of the study, E3 was selected as the favourable test environment for the taro yield multi-environment trial. The result showed that application of AMMI and GGE biplots facilitate visual comparison and identification of superior genotype for each target environment.
The present study was carried out to compare the efficacy of a nematicide of new generation for the control of the false root-knot nematode; Nacobbusaberrans, in cucumber crop (Cucumissativus L.) under field conditions. The experiment was set up under a randomized complete block design with four replications. Six treatments were assessed for control of N. aberrans: four doses of fluensulfone, one of the nematicide oxamyl and a control with no application of nematicides. Ten days before transplanting, nematicides were applied in a single application via irrigation systems. Higher control under field conditions was obtained with the application of fluensulfone at a dose of 2.75 L.ha-1. The lowest final population densities of N. aberrans in cucumber crop were recorded in the plots treated with fluensulfone at the dose of 2.25 L.ha-1, with an average of 6.25 juveniles, and the lowest galling index was observed in plots treated with fluensulfone at the same dose, with a galling index of 2.1. The results indicated that application of fluensulfone to cucumber crop can provide good control of N.aberrans.
Megagreen® is activated calcite of a worldwide granularity. It is an ecological foil fertilizer with a strong impact on plant resistance, it improves the fertility and health of plants resulting in an improvement of yield and plant quality. The experiment was carried out to examine the growth and yield performance of indeterminate (Ibadan Local) and determinate (UC 82-B) tomato varieties as influenced by a nutrient supplement (Megagreen®) applied as foliar spray at two weeks after transplanting tomato at different rates of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 kg/ha with a control. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications and data collection commenced at two weeks after transplanting. Results showed that the two varieties were significantly different in growth and yield parameters. Rate of application significantly influenced plant height (except at 2 & 8 WAT), number of leaves (except at 6 WAT), number of branches at 2 WAT, days to flower, days to maturity, number of flowers and fruit yield. Application of Megareen® at the rate of 3.0 kg/ha is recommended for fruit yield enhancement in tomato.
The genetic variability and inter-relationships between yield and associated traits in some taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) genotypes were investigated in two years across two locations. The experiment was laid out as randomized complete block design with three replications in each location. Data were collected on the growth and yield attributes of taro. The genetic variability of the attributes measured in both locations was studied to estimate the genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation, broad sense heritability (h2b) and genetic advance (GA). Considering GCV, h2b and GA simultaneously as the best estimators of the amount of advance expected from selection, number of secondary shoots/plant and number of leaves/plant gave the highest values in each of the locations. This shows that a satisfactory selection program for improvement of these genotypes through these traits is possible at each specific location. Correlation analysis showed that all the traits measured were significantly and positively correlated with taro yield except corm and cormel lengths. Number of cormels/plant had the strongest positive correlation with taro yield (r = 0.699**) followed by cormel weight (r = 0.624**). Path-coefficient analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed cormel weight and number of cormels/plant as the biggest determinants of taro yield, both contributing about 72% of the total variation in yield. This suggests that these two characters are important selection indices for taro yield improvement.
Soil management for crop production is a major concern for sustainability agricultural. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of the soil is needed to quantify the amount of amendments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for estimating the SAR of the soil. In this research, 153 observations of soil properties were collected from literature and actual laboratory analysis and SAR was calculated. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), soil pH, sand, silt and clay percentages were taken as inputs and the SAR in the soil was taken as output. Based on the membership functions, four ANFIS models were tested against the calculated sodium absorption ratio to assess the accuracy of each model. The tested membership functions were triangular-shaped membership function (trimf, ANFIS1), generalized bell-shaped membership function (gbellmf, ANFIS2), trapezoidal-shape membership function (trapmf, ANFIS3) and Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf, ANFIS4). The results showed that ANFIS4 was the most accurate membership function where the training error was 0.10492. Meanwhile, the training error for ANFIS1, ANFIS2 and ANFIS3 were 0.1945, 0.22751 and 1.4297, respectively. The comparison between results of ANFIS and observed SAR using testing data set shows that the coefficient of determination was 0.9907. Results indicate that ANFIS modeling is a promising alternative to the traditional approach and it significantly decreases calculation time in determining SAR of the soil.
The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of phytogenic additives on haematological indices and serum metabolites of broiler chickens fed diet containing Zysygium aromaticum, Xylopia aethiopica and Morinda lucida. One hundred and eighty, 1- day- old hubbard broiler chicks obtained from a reputable hatchery were used. Birds were randomly divided into six dietary treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). Each dietary group was replicated thrice with ten birds per replicate. Dietary treatment are as follow: 1. control (basal diet), 2. Antibiotics ( basal diet + 1 g Amoxycol® wsp containing Amoxycillin 200 mg + Collistin sulphate 1000000 iu /kg diet), 3. Morinda lucida (basal diet + 1 g Morinda lucida / kg diet) 4. Basal diet + Morinda lucida and Xylopia aethiopica each at 0.5 g/diet, 5. Basal diet + Morinda lucida and Syzygium aromaticum each at 0.5 g/diet while 6 contained mixtures basal diet + Morinda lucida, Xylopia aethiopica and Syzygium aromaticum each at 0.33 g/kg diet. Birds were fed adlibitum with dietary treatment for the period of 56 days. The use of Morinda, Morinda+ Zysygium, Morinda + Xylopia and mixtures of all the phytogenic plants showed improved PCV concentration compared to control. Birds fed Morinda, Morinda+ Xylopia had highest (p<0.05) neutrophil. Birds fed antibiotics and those fed Morinda + Zysygium showed increased (p<0.05) lymphocyte counts. Highest (p<0.05) monocyte concentration was recorded in broiler fed Morinda+ Zysygium. The serum biochemistry of the broilers were affected following dietary inclusion of the phytogenic plants. In conclusion, the use of Morinda, Morinda+ Zysygium, Morinda + Xylopia and mixtures of all the phytogenic plants showed improved PCV. The various phytogenic plants has significant (p<0.05) effect on serum biochemistry, total protein, globulin, albumin and serum cholesterol of the broiler chickens.
Soil degradation and nutrient depletion have become serious threat to agricultural productivity in Nigeria. Substantial improvement in the systems is required to support the ever-increasing rural and urban population. During the 2013 and 2014 cropping season, field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of combined application of NPK fertilizer and Biosoil conditioner on yield and growth of maize at Kilankwa (longitude 6.79316E, latitude 8.70545N) in Abuja, Nigeria. This experiment was done as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were T1 (300 kgNPK/ha); T2 (300 kgNPK/ha + 1 tablet of Biosoil conditioner in 50 litres of water); T3 (1 tablet of Biosoil conditioner in 50 litres of water) and T4 (control). Soil samples were collected for the determination of chemical and physical properties before planting. Data on growth parameters (plant height and number of leaves) and yield (fresh cob weight) were also collected and subjected to 2 ways Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) and means separated with Least Significant Difference (LSD) at P=0.05.
The study revealed that during dry season of 2013 cropping system, application rate of 300 kg NPK/ha + 1 tablet of Biosoil conditioner in 50 litres of water had the highest fresh cob weight (6.0 t/ha), followed by 300 Kg NPK/ha only (5.1 t/ha), 1 tablet of Biosoil conditioner only (3.2 t/ha) and control (2.3 t/ha) respectively. The field evaluation also showed that combined application rate of 300 kgNPK/ha + 1 tablet of Biosoil conditioner in 50 litres of water /ha produced the highest number of leaves (13) and plant height (251 cm) compared to the least value of 10 and 123 cm respectively as obtained in the control.
Similarly in the 2014 wet season, the same trend as in the 2013 was obtained with the application rate of 300 kg NPK/ha+1 tablet of Biosoil conditioner in 50 litres of water had the highest fresh cob weight (10.9 t/ha), followed by 300 Kg NPK/ha only (9.0 t/ha), 1 tablet of Biosoil conditioner only (7.4 t/ha) and control (3.0 t/ha) respectively.
It can be concluded that the combined application of 300 kgNPK/ha and 1 tablet of Biosoil conditioner in 50 litres gave the highest values for growth and yield than the sole application of either NPK or Biosoil conditioner.