The performance and carcass characteristics of West African dwarf (WAD) sheep fed Panicum maximum supplemented with Moringa oleifera, Gliricidia sepium or cassava fodder, were investigated in a randomized complete block and completely randomized design experiments respectively. Twenty four growing WAD sheep (10.7 kg average live weight) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments: 1: 100% P. maximum (control), 2: 75% P. maximum + 25% M. oleifera, 3: 75% P. maximum + 25% G. sepium, 4: 75% P. maximum + 25% Cassava leaves. Dry matter (DM) intake (g/kgW0.75/day) ranged between 74.6 for treatment 4 and 92.7 for treatment 3. Crude protein (CP) intake in treatment 3 was higher than in treatments 1 and 4. Growth rate ranged between 6.53 g/day to 12.74 g/day for treatments 1 and 4 respectively while treatments 2 and 4 had better feed conversion ratio than treatment 1. Average dressing percentage was 33.9% and there was no significant difference in the carcass characteristics among the various treatments. It was concluded that Moringa oleifera is a suitable alternative to Gliricidia sepium as supplement in small ruminant diets.
Papaya in vitro-based micropropagation has been attempted for a number of cultivars. This effort has mainly been geared towards production of multiple unisexual planting stocks in large-scale production of papaya. In this study, a comparison was made on growth performance between tissue-culture generated and direct-seeded papaya plants. Key morphological traits ranging from leaf length to days taken to flowering were employed in evaluating the effect of in vitro propagation on papaya compared to conventionally, seeds generated papaya plants. Three papaya lines for each experimental group were selected at 5-leaf stage and transplanted in a greenhouse. These were set in a completely randomized design with three replicates and the plants subjected to the same soil and water treatment. Data on growth characteristics was collected weekly from transplanting to plant flowering. One way ANOVA was used to generate means which were then separated using Student Newman’s Kules test at p≤0.05. The results showed that direct-seeded and the in vitro-generated papaya plants varied slightly in respect to leaf length and width with both falling within the normal range (leaf width; 30 – 60 cm, leaf length; 45 – 90 cm). It was also noted that, the tissue cultured plants had shorter and narrower leaves compared to the seeds generated plants. On average tissue cultured plants took 95 days to flowering compared to 100 days taken by the direct seeded papaya plants. On average, the stem diameter variation (0.6 cm) was not significantly different at 95% confidence interval. In addition, the average internode length of seeds generated papaya was slightly longer than that of the tissue culture generated plants. From the seven criteria used in the comparison, this study did not record a consistent difference between seeds and tissue cultured papaya plants. In conclusion, in vitro regeneration process does not change the genetics of the papaya plant but provides a rapid production of true-to-type planting materials per unit time.
Currently the technologies which are available in Bangladesh agriculture, integrated pest management (IPM) are one of the most important to them. Reasonably, the objectives of the study were to determine the adoption extent of IPM practices by the rice farmers and to determine the influencing factors of IPM adoption. The study was conducted at Mymensing district. One hundred and sixteen (116) rice farmers were asked about the use of IPM practices and it was found that majority of the farmers (82.3 percent) were under medium to high group in aspect of adoption extent of IPM practices. The factors that significantly influenced farmer’s adoption of IPM were training exposure, experience of IPM practices, extension media contact and knowledge on IPM. Among these variables, training exposure was the most influencing factor. Therefore, it can be suggested that if initiative can be taken by the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) along with other relevant organizations to increase training facilities and extension media contact then the adoption extent of IPM practices will be increased. Furthermore, more focus concentrate on the farmers belong to less experience in IPM practices and poor knowledge on IPM is also helpful to increase this environment friendly farming practice.
Climate change is a serious threat to poverty alleviation in developing countries as it can sweep several decades of development efforts. It is one of the constraints to achieving potential crop yields, and it is a factor that is often not considered in agriculture development project. The objective of this paper is to evaluate farmer’s perception on climate change and to document changes in rainfalls, temperatures, and maize grain yields during the last 30 years in a savannah region of Gandajika in the DR-Congo. A survey of 131 families of small farmers scattered within 20 Km of the agronomic research station (INERA) was carried out in 2009 on the effects of climate changes based on farmer’s perception. Data on rainfall and temperature were collected at two weather stations over a period of 31 years (1980 to 2010) in the District of Gandajika (Eastern Kasai, DR-Congo). Maize grain yield was compiled for the same region and period. Agricultural practices are traditional and farmers are not using any inputs. Sixty-seven percent feel the effects of climate change. The number of rainy days per year decreases significantly from 139 during the first decade (1980 to 1990) to 97 in the last (third) decade (2000-2010). However, annual rainfalls did not significantly change during these three decades (P-value > 0.05). A significant variation in temperature was observed in the last decade with an increase from 24°C to 27°C. In the meantime, maize grain yield declined gradually over time. The average yield decreased from 1.6 t ha-1 in 1999 to 1.4 t ha-1 in 2002, 1.2 t ha-1 in 2003, and 0.75 t ha-1 in 2004.
A new combination fungicide Nativo 75 WG composed of Trifloxystrobin 25% (Strobilurin) and Tebuconazole 50% (Triazole) was tested against rice blast and sheath blight diseases under field condition during Autumn 2014 and - 2015. The combination fungicide Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75 WG) @ 0.4 g/l was found effective against blast and sheath blight diseases recording least Percent Disease Index (PDI) of 17.02 and 24.7 respectively. Other combination fungicide Tricyclazole 18% + Mancozeb 62% WP @ 1.5 g/l recorded blast PDI of 26.03 which is statistically on par with Kresoxim methyl 44.3 SC @ 1.0 ml/l and Tricyclazole 75 WP @ 0.6 g/l. Other fungicides of the experiment such as Thifluzamide 24 SC @ 0.75 ml/l, Hexaconazole 4% + Zineb 68% @ 2.0 g/l and Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP @ 2.0 g/l are on par among themselves but stands next to the Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75 WG) @ 0.4 g/l in reducing sheath blight PDI. Significant increase in the grain yield was observed in the plots treated with test chemical Nativo 75 WG @ 0.4 g/l (55.13 q/h) compared to the other fungicidal treatments which recorded the yield in the range of 40.75 to 48.12 q/h.
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) production in Eastern Africa remains low due to a variety of factors including soil nutrient depletion. As intensive row-crop production evolves, improvements in managing soil nutrient quantity and availability of less renewable nutrients like P becomes increasingly important. The yields in Kenya are typical of low input systems ranging below 1.0 t ha-1 against a potential of 5.0 t ha-1 in a season. In an attempt to overcome this constraint, On-station experiments were conducted at the Alupe research station during the long and short rain seasons of 2015 to investigate the influence of phosphate fertilizer rates (0, 12.5, 25 and 37.5 kg ha-1 P2O5) on nutrient uptake and partitioning in finger millet. Partitioning of N and P was significantly influenced (P<.05) by phosphate rates and variety. Most phosphorus and nitrogen content was partitioned to the grains (>30%) while the least to the roots (<19%). Variety U-15 had the greatest partitioning of nitrogen to the grains while the local variety, Ikhulule had the least. Application of phosphorus led to increase in the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in finger millet with the most in the grains with a maximum of 106.5 kg ha-1 on the 37.5 kg ha-1 P2O5 rate during the short rains while the roots had the lowest uptake with 16.9 kg ha-1 and 22.1 kg ha-1 in the long and short rains seasons respectively on the control. This study on nutrient use provides an opportunity to further improve P fertilization to specific rates in relation to crops needs as farmers will be assured of greater yields, profitable and sustainable production. Limited use of P fertilizer restricts the uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen as well as the balance in partitioning and recommends application of 25 kg ha-1 P2O5 with improved varieties.
Cassia alata is one of the important medicinal plants which are traditionally used to treat skin infections. It is also being used as antihelmintic, antibacterial, diuretic and laxative. The leaves of C. alata are used as an effective treatment against ringworm and also against other skin diseases such as eczema and chronic skin impurities. The local people of the Andaman and Nicobar Island use this medicinal plant Cassia alata L. against centipede bites and instant relief from joint and muscle pains. Wide variability was observed in this species and is distributed throughout the Islands. In the present study, genetic diversity among 29 different accessions of Cassia alata collected from different parts of South Andaman were studied using ISSR marker. A set of seven ISSR primers were taken for DNA fingerprinting, among them 5 ISSR primers produced194 clear and prominent bands with 61% homology. The maximum discriminating bands obtained from primer ISSR 7 and ISSR 9. Cluster analysis of ISSR divided into two clusters. An assessment of genetic diversity among species would assist in planning for future germplasm collection, conservation and domestication programmes.