Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Variability and Correlation Coefficient to Improve Some Agronomic Traits in Rice

A. G. Hefena, M. S. Sultan, M. A. Abdel-Moneam, S. A. Hammoud, C. Barutçular, A. EL-Sabagh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2016/29743

This study was conducted to evaluate genetic components, heritability and correlation coefficient effects of the parents and their F1 for some agronomic as well as yield and yield traits. A line x tester cross was conducted among the ten parents (four lines and six testers) in 2010 to produce (24) F1 crosses evaluated during 2011. The results indicated that both GCA showed highly significant for all studied traits. The mean squares of lines x testers interaction (SCA) exhibited highly significant differences for all studied traits. Higher estimates for non-additive or dominance genetic variance was computed for number of panicles / plant, number of filled grains / panicle and grain yield / plant in comparison with its corresponding evaluates of additive genetic variance. Concerning to heritability estimates, high values were observed in broad sense heritability. Meanwhile, evaluate of narrow-sense heritability were low to moderate for number of panicles / plant, number of filled grains / panicle, 1000-grain weight and grain yield / plant. Heritability estimates in narrow sense were relatively low for panicle weight and spikelet fertility percentage. As for correlation for grain yield / plant the results recorded highly positive correlation coefficient with each number of days to heading, plant height, number of panicles / plant, panicle length, panicle weight, fertility percentage and 1000-grain weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Comparative Economics of Grain and Seed Production of Groundnut in Karnataka, India

Govind Pal, C. Radhika, K. Udaya Bhaskar, Hardev Ram, S. Rajendra Prasad

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2016/29405

The present study was based on primary data collected for 100 farmers from Chitradurga district of Karnataka during the agricultural year 2013-14. Tabular analysis and discriminant function analysis was used in the present study. The analysis of data reveals that human labour occupied the major share (27.07%) of total cost in seed production and bullock and machine labour occupied the major share (29.38%) of total cost in grain production of groundnut. The higher human labour requirement in seed production was mainly due to activities like rouging, gap filling etc. The variable cost was comparatively higher in seed production (Rs. 25745.0 per ha) over grain production (Rs. 20752.0 per ha). The total cost of cultivation in groundnut seed production was around 18% higher than grain production. The gross return was about 27% higher in seed production than grain production and net return from seed production of groundnut was 44% higher than grain production. The BC ratio was 1.73 in case of groundnut seed production as compared to 1.60 in grain production. The discriminant analysis indicated that human labour with 45.56% followed by gross return (35.83%), seed (17.50%), manures and fertilizers (0.69%),  bullock and machine labour (0.42%) contributed to discriminate between the seed and grain production of groundnut. The net return from groundnut seed production was encouraging, therefore the area under seed production may be increased for higher profitability and timely supply of quality seed to the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Stimulating Paste Conservation Period and Economic Benefit of Ethrel-Palm Oil Mixture in Rubber Tree Plantations in South-Eastern Côte d’Ivoire

S. Obouayeba, E. F. Soumahin, A. P. Obouayeba, C. B. Y. Adou, J. L. Essehi, G. J. O. Atsin, M. K. Okoma

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2016/26973

To maintain and increase sustainable productivity and natural rubber yield, the hormonal stimulation management of rubber yield should be controlled from operation centers. A study was conducted to determine the type of prepared stimulant paste and the maximum efficiency period of this paste in southeastern Côte d’Ivoire, during two years from 2012 to 2014. The study was conducted on the clone GT 1, according to single tree plot design of 15 treatments of 30 replicate trees per treatment, corresponding to different conservation periods of the prepared stimulant paste. Two stimulant products namely Ethrel mixed with palm oil and Almephon (ready-to-use), have been stored at ambient temperature and left for cool. The prepared stimulant paste was kept for 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days. The results indicated that rubber yield, radial vegetative growth, physiological profile and health of rubber trees haven’t been affected by both conservation of the stimulant paste and different conservation periods. However the prepared stimulant paste could be kept up to 56 days, at ambient temperature as well as in cold, without losing their efficiency. These important results help predict the management of hormonal stimulation of rubber yield, without electrical power, from centers which will ensure distribution to different plantations. Moreover, the stimulant paste Ethrel-mixed with palm oil, substantially cheaper and using the palm oil, an important local and profitable product to the bark of Hevea brasiliensis, would be the best choice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmer Participatory Approach for Formulating Crop-specific Organic Nutrient Packages in Two Contrasting Agroclimatic Zones of the West Bengal State, India

Sudarsan Biswas, Rupak Goswami, Md. Nasim Ali, Hirak Banerjee, Mahadev Pramanick

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2016/29340

Aims: Low adoption of organic inputs for soil fertility maintenance is one of the major challenges to agricultural extension agents working towards sustainable agriculture. The present article aims to develop the methodology for organic nutrients sourcing for five crops [Rice (Oryza sativa), Chilli (Capsicum annuum), Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Green gram (Vigna radiata)] in two agro-climatic zones of the West Bengal State, India.

Study Design: The study followed a systematic farmer-participatory research (FPR) approach for sourcing crop specific nutrient. Based on the soil fertility and nutrient recommendation of the State Department of Agriculture for individual crops, the nutrients were sourced from available farm resources, mainly agricultural waste, animal excreta and urine with the participation of the farmers.

Results: There were three nutrient packages identified under each of the three farming systems in the agro-climatic zones. These packages were combinations of different ratios of bulky manure (Farm yard manure (FYM), poultry, goat and duck manures) and liquid manure prepared from green biomass, cow dung and water (Sasyagavya) commensurate to their availability in a farm.  

Conclusion: The developed packages suits farmers’ typology and are more likely to be adopted by the farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Cultural and Morphometric Characters of Fusarium xylarioides Strains Isolated from Coffee Trees Infected with Coffee Wilt Disease Collected from Eastern, North Kivu and Equateur Provinces, Democratic Republic of Congo

M. Muengula-Manyi, P. Tshilenge-Djim, C. Mpunga, A. Ngombo-Nzokwani, A. Kalonji-Mbuyi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2016/29841

Aim: To determine cultural and morphometric characters of different strains of Fusarium xylarioides isolated from coffee trees collected from Eastern, North Kivu and Equateur provinces of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Study Design: The study was performed using a completely randomized design with three replications.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in the laboratory Unit of Phytopathology, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Kinshasa, between January and February 2005.

Methodology: Seventeen F. xylarioides strains collected from the eastern, North Kivu and Equateur province were isolated from coffee trees infected with CWD. They were grown in Synthetic Nutrient Agar (SNA) and Potato Glucose Agar (PGA) culture medium. For each strain, characteristics based on radial growth, mycelial pigmentation and contour of disc, size and morphology of conidia, and density of sporulation were studied.

Results: The results obtained showed that different strains of F. xylarioides are characterized with rapid rate of growth (3.76 – 4.14 mm/day), slow rate of growth (3.36 – 3.74 mm/day) and very slow rate of growth (2.78 – 2.98 mm/date). In general, 70.5% of strains had cream pigmentation, 23.5% had purple and 6% had cream to purple pigmentation. Seventy-six percent of strains presented a slightly sinuous mycelial disc, while 24% had sinuous disc. Different strains produced 84.9% of sickle conidia, while 15% of conidia were curved; and 67.7% of microconidia had allantoid form, while 32.1% had a reniform shape. Microscopic observations revealed that macroconidia size varied from 7.1 – 13.31 x 1.7 – 2.45 µm, and microconidia varied from 3.55 – 6.15 x 1.65 – 2.42 µm. All macroconidia presented a single partition, while microconidia were devoid of any partition. The strains studied produced an average 200 – 800 conidia/ml. 

Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that F. xylarioides presents a plasticity for different characters studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Chromolaena odurata in Controlling Sitophilus zeamais in Stored Maize

Ibrahim Yussif Jnr, Amenga Denis Abugri, J. V. K. Afun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2016/29216

Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is among the important pests which attack stored maize. It is listed in addition to Prostephanus truncatus as the two most damaging species of maize in West Africa. In Ghana about 15% of maize grains harvested is lost to S. zeamais. A laboratory study was conducted at the Entomology laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, to determine the efficacy of Chromolaena odorata (L) R. M. King and H. Robintson ethanolic leaf extract for Sitophilus zeamais control. The bioactivity of these extracts was assessed under average laboratory conditions of 26°C and relative humidity of 80%. The leaf extract at four dosage levels (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ml) were mixed with 50 g of disinfested MAMABA maize variety in 750 ml plastic containers and the effect on insect mortality, progeny production and grain damage were assessed. The repellent action of these extracts at 0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 ml on Sitophilus zeamais was also evaluated. The leaf extract showed significant difference between 10.0 and 5.0 ml on one hand and 2.5 and control on the other hand. The 10.0 ml that recorded the highest mortality could inflict only as low as 8.75% after 7 days. The maize grain treated with the various dosage levels of the leaf extract showed much promise by significantly reducing the number of progeny produced by S. zeamais as compared with the control. Grain weight loss in leaf extract treated grains was dose dependent ranging from 3.51% in the highest dose to 11.34% in the control with significant differences. The leaf extracts was not repellent to the weevil.

The correlation between grain weight loss and progeny production was very strongly positively correlated in the leaf extract effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Paddy (Oryza sativa L.) Production Status and use of Agricultural Inputs in Selected Districts of the Eastern and Southern Regions of Tanzania

Joachim H. J. R. Makoi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2016/26854

Understanding on the status of paddy production and productivity in the 78 BRN irrigation schemes in Tanzania is needed to cope with projected changes with a view to address economic hardships and food security in selected regions of eastern and western Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the status of production and productivity of rice grown in the 78 selected BRN irrigation schemes; quantity of agro inputs and their costs and per cent of famers using the inputs during the dry and wet seasons. Three groups of farmers in 4 replicates were interviewed from each of the 78 BRN irrigation schemes. Data on the area under cultivation, quantity and costs of agricultural inputs, cost of production, yields and market price were collected using structured questionnaires. Data analysis was performed using the software of STATISTICA program 2007. Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) was used to compare treatment means at P ≤ .05 (Steel and Torrie, 1980). Descriptive statistics including percentages and means were similarly used for analysis.

The results indicate that during the wet season paddy was grown on a total area of 66,139 ha compared with 2,824 ha grown during the dry season. Results also showed that Mbarali District had 28 per cent of the total area under paddy cultivation during the wet season compared with 23, 17 and 13 per cent of the total area for Kilombero, Mlele and Mpanda Districts respectively. Data also indicate that BRN irrigation schemes in Mvomero District cultivated 51 per cent of the total paddy area during the dry season probably due to reliable source and supply of irrigation water. Out of 78 BRN irrigation schemes, 59 with 7,189 farmers from Mbarali, Mlele, Kilombero and Mvomero Districts received 545 tons of different agricultural input subsidies. The data also shows that 4,367,234 kg of Urea was used with overall total cost of TZS 4,532,366,000 during the wet season. Similar trend was observed during the dry season. This quantity and the overall total costs were higher compared with FYM, Minjingu, DAP and CAN. On the average, the main fertilizers were used by between 29 and 46 per cent of the farmers in the irrigation schemes. Compared with other agrichemicals, results showed that 89,907 litres of 2,4-D were used during the wet season by farmers from 39 BRN irrigation schemes. During the dry season, 8,158.3 litres of 2,4-D herbicide corresponding to TZS 177,473,000 was used by more farmers compared with other pesticides.

The overall total mean yield and price of rice in the 78 BRN irrigation schemes during the wet season was recorded as 3.84 t ha-1 and 539,343 TZS ton-1 respectively. During the dry season, the overall total mean yield of rice was 4.2 t ha-1 with corresponding mean price of 557,676 TZS ton-1. The overall total mean variable costs (TVC) during the wet and dry seasons were 1,102,500 and 1,155,000 TZS ha-1 respectively. The overall NR during the dry season in the BRN irrigation schemes was 1,162,870 TZS ha-1. Relative to other districts, results showed that in the wet season, ARR was significantly (P ≤ .05) greater in Mbarali (138.5%) district and 323% in Kilombero district during the dry season. These results forms a baseline data from which BRN project can use to help in sustainable production and a useful pathway for interventions on the improvement of rice production and utilization, harnessing its contribution to food and income security for sustainable development and livelihoods.