Soil acidity is a major limiting factor for maize productivity in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. A yield loss of up to 60% has been reported in acid tolerant population. The objective of this study was to determine the level of tolerance of some selected inbred lines under Aluminum and Manganese toxicities on chosen experimental site soils and to classify them into specific pools. The experiment was laid out in a Split-plot design and genotypes were completely randomized within the blocks. Three replications were used. An assessment of 52 inbred lines of maize which consisted of 25 IRAD Cameroon lines, 3 IITA lines and 24 lines from CIMMYT-Colombia was then carried out in a contrasted acidic soil with Al (Nkoemvone site) and Mn (Nkolbisson site) toxicities based on six agro-morphological parameters. Soil correction was made up by the application of 2 t ha-1 of dolomite lime. The soil analysis revealed that, at Nkolbisson plot there was Mn toxicity of 90. 6 (ug/g), while at Nkoemvone Al toxicity was more presented with 2.32 (cmol (+) kg). At Nkolbisson, 5.76% of the genotypes proved to be efficient, 9.43% were tolerant, 75% were susceptible and 15.09% were negative control. At Nkoemvone, 7.54% of inbred lines expressed themselves as efficient, 3.77% were tolerant, 75.47% were susceptible, 13.20% were negative control and 5.66% of the genotypes presented floral abnormalities called “mentle”. ATP S5 30Y-1 and CML 535 distinguished themselves as ubiquitous and CML 304 was the most susceptible variety to both agro-ecologies. The dendrogram obtained by the non-hierarchical classification analysis of endogamous genotypes showed three groups of maize genotypes at Nkolbisson and four groups at Nkoemvone. The best genotypes at Nkolbisson were: ATP-14 (4.08 t/ha), Camlnb1 17 F (3.93 t/ha), ATP S9 30Y-1 (3.86 t/ha), CML 437 (2.72 t/ha) and CML 535 (2.54 t/ha) and at Nkoemvone were: Clgp1 17 (3.9 t/ha), CML 322 (2.24 t/ha), CML 479 (2.24 t/ha) and CML 533 (2.05 t/ha). Diffusion of these acid-tolerant genotypes offers a sustainable strategy to increase yield productivity of acids soils in the humid forest zones.
Managed and unmanaged (unmanaged) extensive culture fisheries systems in small village ponds in the district of Kurukshetra, Haryana, India were explored and analyzed focusing on the relationship amongst water quality, production of fish food organisms, fish yields and management actions. In unmanaged ponds, fish growth/yield and dissolved oxygen were low and ammonia, chlorides, calcium, total hardness, magnesium, phosphates and biochemical oxygen demand were higher when compared against managed ponds. The differences are likely due to higher organic load in the unmanaged ponds arising from domestic sewage and cattle entry from non-point sources. Variations observed in the phytoplankton population for the unmanaged and managed ponds were insignificant, however, zooplankton were high in unmanaged ponds. The NPP was higher in the unmanaged ponds in contrast to managed ponds. From the finding it seems that Fish production does not tends to depend significantly on the extent of primary production. Significant direct relationship between fish production and primary productivity could not be determined in this study. However, multivariable relationships were detected through multivariate statistical analysis. Such relationships are not straightforward as a variety of factors including ammonia production, organic loading and the quantity and quality of fertilizers play important roles in influencing such relations.
This study was designed to determine if a relationship existed between corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) yields and climate factors in West Tennessee from 1955 to 2013. Yield data was obtained from National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) annual crop surveys for the twenty one counties in United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) West Tennessee and Delta Districts. Climate data was obtained from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Only climate data from April through October was used in calculations to more accurately reflect corn and soybean growing seasons. Correlations, linear regressions, and multiple regressions were developed to compare crop yields with climate factors for the year as well as three phases of the crop production process (planting, growing, and harvesting). Significant relationships were found to exist between corn yield and minimum temperature (r = 0.32; P = .01), precipitation (r = 0.29; P = .26), Palmer Z-Index (r = 0.26; P = .47), and one month Standardized Precipitation Index (r = 0.26; P = .049). Significant relationships were found between soybean yield and maximum temperature (r = -0.32; P = .01), precipitation (r = 0.43; P < 0.001), Palmer Drought Severity Index (r = 0.28; P= .03), Palmer Z-Index (r = 0.43; P < .001), and one month Standardized Precipitation Index (r = 0.46; p < .001). The study found that yields were dependent on multiple climatic factors due to the abundance of significant multiple regression models compared to linear regression models. However, West Tennessee corn and soybean yields were not statistically influenced by average temperature or climate factors during the planting stage of production. Overall, growing season temperature and precipitation factors were important and will continue to impact corn and soybean yields in West Tennessee.
The study was carried out to determine management and utilization of feed resources in the coastal regions of Bangladesh. For these purpose, a well structured questionnaire was developed to collect information by door to door household survey (HHS). Based on cattle population, 2 Upazilas from each of 10 districts which were adjacent to the coastal regions of Bangladesh were selected for HHS. A randomly selected 50 farmers from each Upazila were considered for collecting information. After screening a total of 915 HHs were considered under statistical analyses. Result shows that about 58% HHs were landless and average of about 89% HHs in the surveyed areas were keeping cattle among which 78.5% of them kept indigenous local cows with an average number of about 3.0 cattle per HH. Buffalo was not found in every region which was found only in 1.75% HHs with an average population size of 0.06 per HH. Sheep was found only in 0.4% HHs with an overall number of 0.02 per HH. About 17% HHs were keeping goats with an average size of 0.54 per HH. Significant difference on performance was found in native cows among different regions but not in crossbred cows. It was observed that majority of the landless HHs reared their cattle by tethering (49%) and extensive management systems (57%) but stall feeding was most preferable system by medium (47%) and large farm HHs (60%). Native pastures, crop residues (rice straw), grazing of crop stubbles and fallow lands were the major feed resources for feeding cattle in those areas. About 87% HHs fed rice straw and about 66% HHs fed cut and carry green grass to their cattle. The seasonal variation of feeding roughages was not too much more but acute shortage of green grasses was seen in winter. Concentrates fed by the farmers in the surveyed areas were mainly rice polish, wheat bran, broken rice and mustard oil cake, but rice polish was the most available concentrate feed ingredients fed by about 82% HHs. Only about 12% HHs cultivated fodder, but about 38% HHs had opportunity to cultivate fodder if they are given technical supports. Most of the HHs had no any specific causes for not to cultivate fodder although they rear cattle. Also, most of them had no idea about the constraints to cultivate fodder. Although natural pastures and crop residues were produced not sufficiently but their full and efficient utilization for livestock feeding has been hindered partly by economic problems and inadequate knowledge about the methods, lack of finance and accessibility to the methods. Finally it may be concluded that raising the productivity of the pasture land by adopting sound management practices, growing productive and nutritious forages in association with food crops are the options for resolving livestock feed shortage around the year. However, training of farmers about feed resources utilization, management and the involvement of government in improving the financial capabilities of farmers are very important.
A field study was conducted to determine the effects of sowing date on the growth and yield of different bread wheat genotypes in two locations of Morocco (the plain of Saïs; Douyet and the Atlas Montaigne; Annoceur). The trial was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The chosen dates were: 1st and 15th November in Douyet; 1st and 15th December in Annoceur and three bread wheat varieties (Achtar, Mehdia and Arrehane). Results revealed that seedlings in 1st November in the Saïs region and 1st December in the Atlas Montaigne increased grain yield for 11.15% compared to seasonal sowing, and any delay in bread wheat sowing might reduce wheat yield. The variety Arrehane surpassed the two other varieties Mehdia and Achtar in both growing seasons and at both locations with an average of 10.95% and 21.05% for grain yield, and for all components measured; number of spike m-2, 1000-grain weight, number of grains per spike, plant height and harvest index.
Despite the prevailing versatility of agro-hydrological Decision Support Systems (DSS) in the agricultural sector, a number of associated deficiencies do exist. The deficiencies are due to lack of synchronization of runoff affecting rainfall, catchment factors, reservoir capacity and irrigation field area in the face of recurring droughts and dry spells in several areas of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The study focused on designing and validating a Decision Support System, by adding water reservoir and irrigation sub-routines to an Agro-hydrological Nedbor Afstromnings Model (NAM) to assist in screening best-bet options for either crop field area or reservoir size using a case study of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) at Ukwe Area in Malawi. Microsoft excel spreadsheet (MS excel) was used to compute cumulative runoff inflows into the dam, seasonal open surface water storage, water losses and withdrawal and reservoir water available for the bean crop. Computer simulation using soil, vegetation and topographical characteristics, and crop water requirements revealed proportion of catchment to irrigation command area of 10:1 with bean water productivity of 0.7 g/l (0.7 kg/m3), indicating low water demand. The NAM simulated values were in agreement with calculated ones. Post-DSS gross margin analysis indicated that 2.42 times more crop returns were obtained from irrigated than rain-fed bean crops despite additional costs associated with reservoir maintenance and irrigation operations. The DSS is, hence, found potential for users in drought prone Sub-Saharan African countries such as Malawi.
Genetic diversity is highly significant for the improvement of many crop species including coriander. Eighty one Ethiopian coriander genotypes were evaluated in 9x9 simple lattice design with two replication for genetic diversity analysis in yield and yield related traits at Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia during 2011 main cropping season. Data were collected on 21 traits. The studied genetic divergence of the 81 coriander genotypes were grouped in to eight clusters using Mahalanobis D2 statistics. The largest cluster (II) and the smallest cluster (VIII), contains about 51.8% and 2.4% of studied genotypes respectively. Maximum and minimum intra cluster distance were observed in cluster II and VIII (D2=7.48 and 1.31 respectively). Maximum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster VI and VIII (D2=329.85) and the minimum distance was observed between cluster I and IV (D2=19.02), suggesting the possibility of getting suitable genotypes for hybridization program among the genotypes. In conclusion, despite the diverse favorable agro- ecologies, germplasm availability and released opportunities, research attention given to this crop was very low till recent time. The present investigation indicated that there is wide range of genetic diversity in the tested germplasm for most of the characters studied. Hybridization among accessions from different clusters identified in this study could lead to considerable genetic improvement by following appropriate selection strategies in the segregating generations.