To achieve high productivity in soybeans, a balanced fertilization and careful management is necessary during the period in which the plant requires larger amounts of nitrogen is essential. This study evaluated the effect of foliar nitrogen fertilization using ammonium sulfate at early grain filling stage of soybean crop. The experiment was performed during 2015/2016 crop in the state of Piauí, Brazil. Nitrogen was applied at doses of, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 kg ha-1 in a randomized block design with four replications. Data was recorded for number and length of pods, thousand seed weight and yield. Late foliar application of nitrogen showed no significant difference in grain yield of soybean plant.
Climate variability which is characterized by rising temperature and rainfall variability is significantly impacting crop yield and livelihoods of farmers. The study analyzed the nexus between climate variability and tomato production in the Offinso North District of Ghana using the hierarchical regression model. Structured questionnaires and focus group discussion guide were instruments for data collection covering 378 tomato farmers randomly selected from three communities in the study area. Frequency counts and percentages were used to describe the perception of farmers about the causes of climate variability. A regression model was used to analyse the effects of climatic variables (temperature and rainfall) on tomato production while controlling other confounding variables. The findings showed that, farmers perceive climate variability to be caused by anthropogenic factors (such as vehicular emissions [66.2%], deforestation [98.4%], slash and burn [70.4%], bush burning [85.2%] and spiritual forces (retributions by the gods, ancestors, and the Almighty God [76.2%]). At 5% level, the regression model indicated a significant negative relationship between temperature and tomato production (P = .05) as well as rainfall and tomato production (P = .05). In sustaining the knowledge of farmers, it is imperative to provide them with the requisite education on the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere and the need to reduce it through appropriate mitigating measures.
Accurate and non-destructive methods to determine individual leaf areas and dry mass of plants are very important. Since they stand as key parameters linked to plant production and are used in functional–structural plant models to simulate plant growth. This paper describes an investigation of the variation in cashew leaf dimensions at different sites within a plantation with the aim of developing a model for calculating leaf area and dry mass. Five location (South, Central, North, East and West) were considered in an eight years old cashew plantation, with rectangular plot and with an area of 3.5 ha. Two trees were selected randomly by location. Their crown was divided vertically into three zones. Within each zone, 60 leaves were collected randomly on different categories of the tree axis. The length, width, area, and the dry mass of each leaf were measured. The longest leaves were obtained in the North, Center and South of the plantation (15.27 cm). The tree leaves located in the South of plantation were the largest (9.6 cm) and had the largest areas (109.1 cm²). The largest quantities of dry mass were obtained from the leaves of the trees located in the South and in the East of the plantation (1.35 g per leaf). The best models according to adjustment and prediction qualities were in all cases stated as follows: Sλ= aln(LW) + b for leaf area and mλ= aln(LW) + b for dry mass. The results indicated an important variation in leaf size and dry mass according to a tree location in the plantation. Therefore, it is important to take into account this variability in the sample constitution when trying to estimate leaf area and dry mass.
The research was conducted at Namong Senior High Technical School in the Offinso Municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana to determine bulking and yield of cassava following application of organic and inorganic fertilizer. The experimental design for the research was a 2 x 6 factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments comprised two levels of variety (Bankyehemaa and Nkabom) and six levels of fertilizer types (F1: Control -No fertilizer application, F2: 600 kg/ha NPK 15:15:15, F3: 600kg/ha NPK 23:10:10, F4: 2t/ha poultry manure (PM), F5: 1t/ha PM + 300kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 and F6: 1t/ha PM + 300kg/ha NPK 23:10:10). Normal husbandry practices including refilling, application of fertilizer, control of pests and diseases and weeding were undertaken. The results of the study showed that yield and yield components, except tuber length were significantly affected by variety with Bankyehemaa variety producing greater effect in most of the yield parameters. The combined application of poultry manure and NPK 23:10:10 treatment significantly produced the greatest fresh tuber yield and was superior in all yield attributes, except tuber girth which was maximized by NPK 15:15:15 alone treatment.
It was concluded that the fertilizer-applied treatments produced greater yield and yield components over the control treatment, while Bankyehemaa variety marginally outperformed the Nkabom variety in terms of tuber yield. It is recommended that in future research, treatments should be modified to study varietal responses to treatment application. Treatment modification should include application of different rates of NPK fertilizer at different times.
Aims: This research aimed at selecting indigenous Bambara groundnut varieties with high nutritional value and inherent resistance to insect attack for cultivation in sudano-sahelian (SS) and sudano-guinean (SG) zones of Cameroon.
Study Design: The susceptibility of varieties to insect attack was assessed by adopting the standard evaluation of Dobie index and the experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences (laboratory of Applied Zoology), UIT (laboratory of food chemical engineering) at Ngaoundere (SG zone). The work was also carried-out at Maroua (SS zone), starting from Jun to October 2013 for susceptibility assessment and from march 2014 to April 2015 for physico-chemical characterization of varieties.
Methodology: Ten Bambara groundnut genotypes were infested with bruchids for six days. Comparative data on the mean percentage adult emergence, mean developmental period and susceptibility index (SI) were then collected for analysis. Seeds were also analyzed for physical and chemical properties to study the physico-chemical basis of resistance to bruchid attack and the nutritional value.
Results: Varieties were significantly different regarding their physical properties (F = 13.32 – 92.89; P ˂ 0.001), chemical composition (F = 6.57 – 2936.00; P ˂ 0.001 – 0.01) and susceptibility index (F = 107.02 – 152.59; P ˂ 0.001). Overall, SS zone was most suitable for insect development. Biophysical characteristics were not found important to characterize the susceptibility of varieties to insect attack. Carbohydrates were negatively correlated (r = -0.53) with Bambara groundnut SI under SS conditions, while total polyphenolic compounds were positively correlated (r = 0.52) under SG conditions. Galaji, Black eye and Guerade guerlal consistently demonstrated high tolerance to infestation by C. maculatus and therefore, may be recommended for relatively longer storage.
Conclusion: The physical parameters of the grains did not linearly relate with varietal resistance to C. maculatus. However, it may be inversely or directly correlated with chemical characteristics, depending on the agro-ecological zone. Further analyses of grain biochemical components that may relate to varietal resistance to C. maculatus are required.
Two on-farm experiments were carried out from January to May of 2014 and 2015 at Mkula, Mbasa and Kisawasawa sites to establish optimum rates of sulphur (S) and zinc (Zn) for rice production in Kilombero district, Tanzania. The treatments tested were: an absolute control and a control for N in both of the experiments. The other treatments for S experiment were a control for S, and sulphur rates of either 10 or 20 kg S ha-1. The second experiment testing Zn had treatments: a control for Zn, Zn rates of either 2.5 or 5.0 kg ha-1. All treatments other than the absolute control received all other limiting nutrients at adequate rates. The test crop was rice variety SARO-5. The results indicated that S application increased grain yield (GY) by 1.8, 2.8 and 1.8 t ha-1 at Mbasa, Mkula and Kisawasawa, respectively. The shoot S concentration increased from 0.13 to 0.29; 0.13 to 0.24 and 0.16 to 0.22% at Mbasa, Mkula and Kisawasawa, respectively. Zinc application increased yield significantly only at Mbasa site by 2.8 t ha-1 and shoot-Zn concentration from 11.5 to 27.0 mg kg-1. The optimum rate of sulphur at Mbasa and Kisawasawa was 10 kg S ha-1 and 20 kg ha-1 at Mkula site. For zinc, the optimum rate at Mbasa site was 2.5 kg Zn ha-1. It was concluded that sulphur application was needed in all the test sites to optimize yield while Zn was needed only at one site (Mbasa).
The main objective of this study was to investigate the major determinate factors of improved highland forages types in the study area and data were collected through survey by developing structured questionnaires for the total sampled households including household heads, members, key informants and subject matter specialists. The data were analysed by using simple descriptive stastics analysis mean, Percentage and Standard deviation. To this end, determinate factors of adoption for the improved highland forage type technologies has been outlined and major factors were all the demographic factor which constitute about 72% and it related with the ever increasing of population size at alarming rate which exacerbated the decline of land to labour ratio meaning shortage of land. 74% of the sampled household heads were cannot read and write. Similarly, this was also strongly correlated with low level of technology adoption (improved highland forage). Other factors of variables in the study were income of family which constitute 4%, educational status which constitute 80%, lack of information which constitute 12%, biophysical status of the land which constitute 66% and intuitional factors were part of the problem and all these are putted according to their order of importance and the overall finding of the study underlined the high importance of institutional support in improving the adoption and utilization of the technologies with their research recommended production package. Therefore, research centres, development agents and other concerned stakeholders should provide on farm extension training to fill knowledge and skill gaps in the adoption of improved Highland forage type.