Precise estimation of crop water requirement is essential for efficient water management of crops. Reference evapotranspiration plays a vital role in determining the water requirements of crops as well as planning of irrigation. The present study has been undertaken to determine the water requirement of major crops cultivated in the Srinagar District of Kashmir Valley on the basis of reference evapotranspiration and pan evaporation measurements. The crops used for the study are paddy, wheat, maize and pulses. Reference evapotranspiration was estimated by Penmen-Monteith method using standard meteorological data for a period of four years (2012-2015). The results showed that the total water requirement is maximum for paddy crop being 573.8 mm by Penmen-Monteith method and 721.4 mm by pan evaporation method. Wheat crop requires minimum water being 343 mm by Penmen-Monteith method and 134.3 mm by pan evaporation method. The water requirement for maize and pulses was in between paddy and wheat being 485.7 mm and 644.1 mm for maize by Penmen-Monteith method and pan evaporation method respectively. For pulses the water requirement was 370 mm by Penmen-Monteith method and 510.8 mm by pan evaporation method.
The present research work was carried out to study the yield of chickpea as affected by boron application. Five varieties of chickpea namely BARI Chola-5, BARI Chola-6, BARI Chola-7, BARI Chola-8 and BARI Chola-9 and four levels of boron (0, 1, 2, 3 kg B ha-1) were used in this experiment. A Randomized Complete Block Design was used for the experiment with three replications. Variety had significant effects on yield and its components of chickpea. BARI Chola-8 showed better performance and produced the highest seed yield (1.74) as compared to other varieties used in the study. Application of boron significantly improved yield and yield attributes of chickpea. The highest seed yield (1.70 t ha-1) was obtained at 3 kg B ha-1 as compared to other levels of boron application. Results revealed that BARI Chola-8 integrated with 3 kg B ha-1 was found to be the best treatment for higher yield of chickpea.
This paper sought to analyse tomato farmers’ perceptions of climate variability in the Offinso North District, Ghana. A cross-section of 378 tomato farmers were interviewed to examine what they perceive climate variability to be and the factors that influence their perception of climatic variation (changes in temperature, changes in rainfall pattern and changes in the intensity of solar radiation) using binary logistic regression model. The study found that respondents had observed temperature rise (90.2%); decrease in rainfall (87.3%); prolonged drought (88.1%); increase in solar radiation (74.6%) and an unpredictable rainfall pattern (73.5%). The perceptions of the farmers were consistent with the meteorological time series data in the area of temperature rise, but while farmers perceived a reduction in rainfall, the meteorological data rather showed an increasing rainfall variability trend. The binary logistic regression results indicate that sex (P = 0.05), age (P = 0.05), formal education (P = 0.05), access to extension service (P = 0.05) and access to climate information (P = 0.05) are factors that significantly influence farmers perception of climate variability. The study concludes that sex, age, formal education, access to extension service and access to climate information are major determinants that influence farmers’ perception of climate variability. Policies tailored at enhancing the adaptive capacity of farmers through access to formal and non-formal education should be provided to enable tomato farmers to produce more tomatoes to increase food production in the study area and Ghana in general.
Despite many publications on cyanide elimination in cassava by soaking in water, it still remains our preoccupation because the techniques elaborations of cyanide removal depend on a good uptake of phenomena. The traditional methods of cassava processing (steeping, peeling, drying) permit to eliminate a large proportion of cyanhydric acid, but the technology of the cassava treatment is still nowadays to be improved. That suggests the importance to better its processing and its production on the technological level by a suitable and reliable fast method (a few minutes) in view to eliminate the cyanide completely. So enzymatic kinetic study of a cassava variety, Sassou, in Democratic Republic of Congo, has been undertaken in this paper at temperature of 25°C by means of only pH-meter. The procedure needs to be called KUNYIMA Procedure for the rising scientific generations in order to remember the cute idea framed by Dr. Anaclet KUNYIMA B., Ordinary professor, university of Kinshasa Democratic Republic of Congo. It is needful to size a cassava reactor which will be a fast procedure of elimination of cyanide, economically payable and efficient with the production of cassava without cyanide according to the order of magnitude of the kinetic constants values found. In this paper cassava hydroxynitrilase has been successfully investigated and its KM has been found 1.5 x 10-2 M; Vmax = 0.0072 Mh-1, R2 = 0.972.
Field trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka during early planting season (April - November) and late planting season (July – December) in 2013 to determine the impact of fungicides and fungicide spray intervals on vegetative growth and yield of three cultivars of taro ("Nachi", "Ugwuta" and "Odogolo") in early planting and late planting season respectively in Nsukka derived savanna. The experimental design was a 3 x 3 x 5 factorial trial in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments consist of three cultivars of taro ("Nachi", "Ugwuta" and "Odogolo"), three fungicides treatments [(Ridomi lGold 66WP plus; active ingredient (a.i) 6% metalaxyl and 60% copper, Ridomil Gold 66WP plus + Champ DP; (a.i) copper hydroxide 50%:50% mixture w/w and no fungicide (control)] and five fungicide spray regimes ( no spray, 1 weekly spray, 2 weekly spray, 3 weekly spray and 4 weekly spray) in all treatment combinations (forty-five treatment combinations). The Result showed that "Odogolo" had the tallest height at 60 days after planting (34.54 cm), 90 days after planting (79.63 cm), 120 days after planting (81.44 cm) and 150 days after planting (63.81 cm) than the other cultivars when sprayed with Ridomil Gold 66WP plus at one weekly interval in the early planting season."Nachi"(12.13) and "Odogolo" (11.95) had the highest number of leaves at 120 days after planting and at 150 days after planting at one weekly spray interval in the late and early planting season respectively."Ugwuta" had the highest percentage establishment at 15 days after planting (65.56%) and 30 days after planting (81.56%) in the late planting season. "Odogolo" had the widest corm diameter with a value of 6.63 cm, number of cormel per stand (16.20), weight of cormel per stand (0.31 kg plant-1), weight of corm per stand (0.81 kg plant-1), weight of cormel per hectare (12228 kg ha-1), weight of corm per hectare (7297 kg ha-1), total tuber yield per stand (0.49 kg ha-1) and total tuber yield per hectare (19524 kg ha-1) than the other cultivars when sprayed with Ridomil Gold66WP plus at one week interval in the early planting season at harvest. The use of Ridomil Gold66WP plus; active ingredient (a.i) 6% metalaxyl at one weekly spray regime is recommended. "Odogolo" cultivar and early season planting proved to be the most promising technology for the cultivation of taro in Nsukka agro-ecology.
Annual forages are an increasingly important feed source for ruminants in the western region of the U.S. However, little information is available on the grazing value and forage quality of many cultivars. The objectives of this project were to evaluate sheep grazing preference and forage quality of thirteen forage barley cultivars and two oat cultivars. Eight Rambouillet rams were used in a randomized complete block design. Rams were allowed to graze a single replication of all fifteen entries for a 24-h period before being moved to another replication. Quadrats were hand-harvested from each plot immediately before and after grazing to evaluate herbage mass production and herbage mass removal. Subsamples were collected and sent to a commercial lab for quality analysis. Visual scores of herbage mass removal were taken from each plot post-grazing. No differences were observed between herbage mass production or herbage mass removal, although there were differences in visual pre- and post-grazing assessment scores (P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed amongst cultivars for acid detergent fiber (25.9-35%, P = 0.011) and nitrate concentrations (2.1-2.5% NO3; P < 0.002), with the oat varieties having the highest nitrate. Other forage quality parameters evaluated were not significantly different among cultivars. Based on nutrient quality, without accounting for nitrate concentrations, these cultivars are a high-quality forage source. This research shows that these annual forage cultivars can be utilized as a high-quality grazing source to meet animal requirements; however, care must be taken to avoid elevated nitrate levels.
Aim: To assess the effect of different levels of compost on plant growth and yield of radish.
Study Design: The pot experiment was carried out using a randomised complete block design with four treatments and five replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Horticultural Centre, Charles Sturt University, Orange, New South Wales, Australia, between September and November, 2016.
Methods: The treatments were 25%, 50%, 100% and 0% (control) compost: soil mixture designated as SL, SM, SH and S. respectively. Data collected included: plant height, stem girth, root length, fresh plant weight, and dry plant weight.
Results: No significant differences were found among the various levels of compost with respect to all the measured parameters. All the levels of compost performed significantly better than the no compost control in all parameters measured.
Conclusion: Compost improved crop growth and yield. Since the 25% compost gave results similar to the 50% and the 100% compost, it can be concluded that the 25% compost provided enough soil nutrients for plant growth and yield. The results merit further work, especially on large scale field studies using lower levels of compost below those in the current study.