Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Farmer’s Constraints to Maize Production in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon

E. L. M. Ngonkeu, L. N. Tandzi, C. V. Dickmi, E. Nartey, M. Yeboah, J. Ngeve, H. A. Mafouasson, A. Kosgei, N. Woin, V. Gracen

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31206

Ten farmers were randomly selected in the humid forest zone of Cameroon to form the main focus group of 50 people. A total of 178 farmers were individually interviewed. A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was conducted in fives villages in the Bimodal Humid forest zone (BHFZ) of Cameroon in 2013. The objectives of the study were to elucidate farmer’s perceptions on maize cultivars and to identify farmer’s constraints on their maize production system. Quantitative data analyses were performed using least square means of the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 17. Results showed that poor soil fertility was among the major six problems listed by farmers in the BHFZ. Maize was the main cereal produced as food and cash crop in the study area. The main land management practice was slash and burn with a fallow system. The major constraints facing farmers were inadequacy of improved varieties, post-harvest handling challenges, weeds infestation, poor soil fertility and high cost of fertilizers. Therefore, it became necessary to explore for more sustainable and affordable ways of increasing yield of the crop through identification of high-yielding and stable maize tolerant to these farmer’s constraints. The practice of appropriate agricultural system associated with the utilization of improved and adapted varieties could significantly increase their maize yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Phytochemical Components and Bioautography of Garcinia mangostana L. Methanol Leaf Extract

Qamar Mohammed Naji Alsultan, Kamaruzaman Sijam, Tavga Sulaiman Rashid, Khairulmazmi Bin Ahmad, Hayman Kakakhan Awla

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31398

The aim of this work to identify chemical components of Garcinia mangostana leaves and test the antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae using bioautographic procedure. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract showed that the leaf extract of G. mangostana rich in alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Tannins, Phenol, Terpenoids, Anthraquinone and Cardiac glycosides. A simple bioautographic procedure, involving spraying suspensions of the bacteria on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates developed in solvents of varying polarities was used to detect the number of antibacterial compounds present in the extract. This activity was indicated by white spots against a red background on the TLC plates after spraying with 5% TTC aqueous solution. P. syringae and X. oryzae were inhibited by the most compounds separated on the TLC plates from the extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agro-morphological Variability of Maize Cultivars in South Benin

Florent J. B. Quenum, Léonard E. Ahoton, Vincent Ezin, Arnaud Djanta

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2017/v15i3520

 In Benin, maize ranks the first among cereal production. Local maize varieties are mainly produced in the southern parts of Benin. The objective of this work was to investigate the agro-morphological diversity of 58 maize cultivars collected from 14 communes in South-Benin. The experimental design used was a block of Fisher (RCB) with 4 replications. Twenty one (21) quantitative and four (04) qualitative descriptors for maize traits were used in this study. From the results obtained, the cultivars were grouped into 3 classes by hierarchical classification both for quantitative traits and qualitative traits, thus indicating  that the two categories of traits showed the same level of variability with very highly significant (p < 0.001) or highly significant (p < 0.01)differences. The cultivar collection consisted of 13 early cultivars (Group 1), 18 cultivars of intermediate cycle (Group 2) and 27 late cultivars (Group 3). In addition, the phenotypic variability of cultivars was more related to their agronomic and physiological behaviors than their geographic origin. The evaluated traits permit to identify the cultivars that can be used in the breeding programs so as to make selected cultivars available to producers. Diversity observed among the cultivars could be useful for further study of maize in Benin and conservation of genetic resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Growth Regulators on Plant Growth and Flowering in Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) cv. Charmit

Sajid A. Malik, Z. A. Rather, Muneeb Ahmad Wani, Ambreena Din, Imtiyaz Tahir Nazki

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32007

An experiment entitled “Effect of growth regulators on plant growth and flowering in dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) cv. Charmit” was conducted to evaluate the response of dahlia to different growth regulators (Ethephon @ 500, 750 and 1000 ppm, Alar @ 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm and Maleic hydrazide @ 500, 750, and 1000 ppm). Ten different treatment combinations were replicated thrice in a Randomized Completely Block Design. The investigation revealed that MH 1000 ppm was very effective and recorded minimum plant height, maximum leaf number, stem diameter, primary and secondary branch number. Significant influence of growth regulators was observed on various floral parameters. Flower bud appearance and colour break was delayed while flowering duration shortened. However, flower bud size, flower number, diameter and fresh weight increased. Maximum days to flower bud appearance and colour break, maximum flower diameter, flower fresh weight and minimum peduncle length was observed with ethephon 1000 ppm. Highest flower number was recorded with MH 500 ppm while maximum flower bud diameter with MH 1000 ppm. Among all growth regulators Maleic hydrazide was found more effective followed by Ethephon and Alar in modifying the plant architecture of dahlia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Spectroscopy for Nutrient Prediction of Oil Palm

Helena Anusia James Jayaselan, Nazmi Mat Nawi, Wan Ishak Wan Ismail, Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Vijiandran Juva Rajah, Xaviar Arulandoo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31502

Oil palm crop has been an important source of income to Malaysian economy, thus it is important to ensure the crops obtain optimum nutrient supply to achieve a higher productivity. This study aimed to investigate the ability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting nutrient deficiency of oil palm tree based on its leaf samples. Near-infrared spectral data was measured using a full range spectroradiometer with wavelength ranging from 350 to 2500 nm from three different frond numbers, namely frond 3, frond 9 and frond 17. Partial least square method was used to develop calibration and prediction models data for the prediction of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of oil palm. The result indicated that the full range spectrometer can be used to predict the nutrient deficiency of oil palm tree based on 30 leaf samples. Frond 17 was found to have a better prediction accuracy than frond 3 and frond 9. The value of coefficient of determination (R2) for frond 17 for values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 0.98, 0.98 and 0.98 while frond 3 results with 0.21, 0.12 and 0.19 and frond 9 had values of 0.05, 0.49 and 0.48 respectively. In terms of Root Mean Square Error of Prediction for frond 17 ranged between 1.40 and 1.55 while frond 3 and frond 9 ranges from 0.01 to 0.15 and 0.01 to 0.21 respectively. In summary, spectroradiometer can be used to predict nutrient deficiency in oil palm frond frond17 using partial least square analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agro-morphological Assessment of Local Cultivars of Nightshade (Solanum macrocarpon L.) in Benin

M. Saka, L. E. Ahoton, V. Ezin, F. Quenum, M. Ayena

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/30415

Solanum macrocarpon (L.) commonly known as “Gboma” is a leafy vegetable widely eaten in several countries of West Africa and South America. Despite the importance of gboma in Africa, this plant is still neglected and underutilized. An understanding of the diversity and characteristics of the existing local cultivars would help value this vegetable crop. The present study aims to characterize local cultivars of S. macrocarpon. Therefore, 51 local cultivars of Smacrocarpon collected from 24 communes of Benin were grown in a randomized alpha lattice design with five (5) incomplete blocks and three (3) replications. Data were collected on 23 variables including 14 quantitative and nine (9) qualitative traits. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a very highly significant difference for all quantitative traits (P <0.001) and showed that there was a significant diversity amongst the collected samples. The hierarchical ascending classification generated a dendrogram which grouped the 51 local cultivars into four (4) different classes. The cultivars of class 2 had the highest values for the useful biomass and total biomass. Those in class 4 had the highest values for the leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, fruit length and width. After analysis, it appears that the cultivars of Class 2 and 4 showed the best leaf traits. Thus, local cultivars 13; 42; 19; 47; 39; 4; 12; 1; and 38 may be used as potential parents in future breeding programs and improvement of S. macrocarpon.

Open Access Original Research Article

GGE Biplot Analysis for Identification of Ideal Soybean [Glycine max L. Merrill] Test and Production Locations in Zambia

P. Cheelo, D. Lungu, M. Mwala

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/30154

Aim: The aim of the study was to Identify an ideal soybean testing environment in Zambia. The specific objectives were to determine the adaptation of new soybean lines (IITA) in different locations and also identify the existence of soybean mega-environments in Zambia.

Study Design: A Randomised Complete Block Design with four (4) replications at each location was used to carry out the experiment. Each plot had 4 rows of 6 m long each.

Place and Duration of Study: A multi- environment was carried out in the 2013/2014 agricultural season in four locations (Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust (GART), Kabwe, Msekera and Masumba Research stations) in agro -ecological regions 1 and 2 of Zambia.

Materials and Methods: The experimental material consisted of 15 genotypes of soybeans viz., TGX 1740-2F (G1), TGX 1830-20E (G2), TGX 1835-10E (G3), TGX 1887-65F (G4), TGX 1904-6F (G5), TGX 1987-11F (G6), TGX 1987-23F (G7), TGX 1988-9F (G8), TGX 1988-18F (G9), 1988-22F (G10), TGX 1989-60F (G11), TGX 1990-129F (G12), Magoye (G13), Safari (G14) and Lukanga (G15). Planting was done in the last week of December (2013) to the first week of January (2014) across the locations and weed control was done by hand. Fertilisation with basal dressing at a rate of 200 kg/ha compound D was done with no inoculation for all the genotypes at planting across all locations. Data collection started when the crop had reached 50% flowering and the other parameters were recorded when the crop had reached maturity. Data analysis was done using Genstat version 16 and GGE biplot.

Results: The results showed that the best soybean location for Zambia was Kabwe; which was representative and discriminating. The genotypes yield mean score was 1239 Kg/ha and TGX 1988-22F was the highest yielding genotype with 1517 kg/ha while the lowest was TGX 1835-10E with 418 kg/ha. In terms of variability in accordance to GGE biplot, Safari was the most variable while the most stable was TGX 1988-22F. Therefore, the study concluded that the best genotype for general adaptability was the variety TGX 1988-22F which was ideal across all the locations as it was high yielding and stable. Six genotypes had a yield which was below the mean performance of the genotypes across all the locations; these were Lukanga, TGX 1835-10E, TGX 1830-20E, TGX 1988-18F, TGX 1987-23F and TGX 1987-11F. Also, three mega-environments were identified, Kabwe/Msekera which had TGX 1988-22F as the winning genotype, GART had safari and Masumba had Magoye.

Conclusion: The study was able to establish that Kabwe was the best test and production location for soybean in Zambia.