Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Diversity and Its Effect on Growth and Development of Citrus aurantium L.

Mariam Artib, Soumaya El Gabardi, Jihane Touati, Youssef Rhimini, Karima Selmaoui, Afifa Mouria, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Rachid Benkirane, Allal Douira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31389

Citrus aurantium L. is the most used rootstock in Morocco. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can favor the good growth of this species. A study was conducted under the greenhouse to assess its reaction to mycorrhizal colonization. Citrus aurantium L. plants were inoculated at the stage of 2 leaves, with a local composite inoculum of AMF, originating from the rhizosphere of many species of Citrus. The growth and mycorrhizal parameters were observed seven months after inoculation. The results obtained showed that the inoculated plants had a growth significantly higher than the control ones, with a gain of 90.1%. Inoculation of the plants was also effective on the leaves emission, branches formation and growth of collar diameter, gains were respectively 266, 300 and 300%. The fresh weight of root and vegetative masses also showed higher values on the inoculated plants, with a gain of 478% and 425% respectively. The average frequency and intensity of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi were 93.33% and 50.6% respectively. The number of spores formed at the rhizosphere of plants inoculated was 132/100 g of soil and they were represented by 23 species belonging to the genera Glomus (8 species), Acauolospora (9 species), Scutellospora (3 species), Pacispora (2 species) and Gigaspora (1 species). The beneficial effect of mycorrhizae on Citrus aurantium L. was discussed in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Restriction Effects on the Bedding Pot Plant Impatiens walleriana

J. de Lojo, E. Gandolfo, D. Gómez, V. Feuring, S. Monti, E. Giardina, C. Boschi, A. Di Benedetto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31997

Pot plant growers must take two technological critical decisions: the pre-transplant plug-cell size and the post-transplant growing medium, both of which have been mentioned as abiotic stress sources for bedding pot plants, including Impatiens walleriana. However, only a few recent reports in bedding pot plants have simultaneously included limiting and non-limiting plug cell volumes and growing medium. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of a wide range of these two abiotic stress sources on I. walleriana plant growth on the assumption that the responses are mainly associated with a negative hormonal signaling from roots and that these can be overridden by a pre-transplant benzyl aminopurine (BAP) spray. The main result was that, in I. walleriana plants, the abiotic stresses imposed by the plug cell volume and growing medium quality constitute an interactive process associated with cytokinins synthesis. From a grower´s point of view, one expensive option to avoid root restriction is to increase the plug cell volume and the growing medium quality. In contrast, a single 100 mg l-1 BAP spray can partially override the root restriction symptoms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis and Diagnosis of the Diversity of Forage Resources in the Semi-arid Region of Setif

K. Abed Cheniti

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31324

The issue of sustainable development of livestock systems in Algeria, is in the mode of resolution of the issue of the growing gap between supply of forage and needs of a growing pet population.

In this context, this study aims to analyze the current situation of forage resources in the semi-arid region of Setif which is, by its central position a crossroads between East and West, North and South of Algeria. The study was carried out over two consecutive seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) and at different sites (North, South and Center) through two lots of farms. The methodological approach adopted consists in a series of investigations of a large number of farms (58 for 2009/2010 season and 61 for 2010/2011 season) which are mainly based on a survey to a broad way for gathering maximum information including forage resources in the study area. The questionnaire consists of three components: The social side, the technical side and the economic one; also making a socio-geographical characterization of vetch in the same region. The results of these investigations revealed that this region is characterized by the combination of cereals (especially durum wheat) to breeding which the power supply suffers from a large deficit and which relying heavily on very modest production of natural forage resources as the share of fodder crops remains negligible in front rate of needs of animals which are growing increasingly leaving the sector always dependent upon the foreign. This situation prevailed for many years.

The results of the typological approach as statistical treatment of the data collected (multiple components analysis "ACM" and Ascending Hierarchical classification  "CAH"), helped first to make a brief characterization of the illustrative variables, then identify by the active variables, six classes throughout the first sample (2009/2010) and three or four classes in the second sample (2010/2011); these classes differ from each other mainly in terms of areas: the third class for each seasons, being the largest with 919.14 ha on average. Developing a typology of farms in the study area, has helped to identify an elite among the samples constituted of the classes n°: 3,2 and 1, however a very important point emerges from this study concerning all the farms which is deficiency of feed resources including cultivated forages such as alfalfa, sorghum, etc ... accusing a deficit of 84.48% and  more particularly of the kind Vicia that is almost absent, registring a low presence of 7% compared to the samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Taxonomic Compendium of Plant Community of Shankaracharya Reserve Forest

Shazmeen Qasba, T. H. Maoodi, S. J. A. Bhat, Irfan Rashid Thokar, P. A. Paray, Mehrajudin Dar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31375

The present investigation was carried out to study the taxonomic compendium of plant community of Shankaracharya reserve forest. The hillock over looks famous Dal lake and presents a beautiful look of Srinagar city on the eastern side of Jammu and Kashmir. During the survey, different quadrats were laid and plant samples were collected for identification. The taxonomic compendium of the plant community identified in Shankaracharya Reserve forest includes 72 genera (69 Angiosperms and 3 Gymnosperms) and 84 species (78 Angiosperms and 6 Gymnosperms) out of which 54 were herbs and grasses, 12 were shrubs and 18 were trees. Monocots and dicots contributed nearly 91.2% of the total angiosperm population indicating that the forest grove is rich in pioneer and mid successional species composition. The study area hosts a remarkable floristic richness with majority of taxa belonging to family Fabaceae followed by Rosaceae, Poaceae and Pinaceae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey and Exclusion Study to Explore for Natural Enemies in Ghana for the Control of Aerial Yam (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) in Florida, USA

I. Adama, J. V. K. Afun, M. B. Mochiah, M. Owusu-Akyaw, W. A. Overholt

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/30789

A survey and exclusion study to establish the presence of D. bulbifera and its associated phytophagous insect fauna was conducted in Ghana between 2004 and 2006. The purpose was to identify potential biological control agents for this plant invading natural and protected areas in Florida, USA. The survey covered five regions based on herbarium records from three academic institutions in Ghana. A total of 40 phytophagous insect species in 9 orders were encountered on the plant with 24 species attacking D. bulbifera in two feeding guilds foliage and bulbil in Ghana. The impact of foliage feeding varied from species to species. The mean percent defoliation of aerial yam over all plots was 30%. Coleopterous species fed on only foliage and nearly all the leaves showed damage from these species. Anomala sp. and Adoretus sp. were the most important Coleoptera (Scarabaeidae) found feeding on the plant. Anomala species, exhibited a very narrow host range, attacking D. alata and D. bulbifera. Even though the damage it caused to aerial yam was relatively small, it exhibited very narrow host range. Lepidopterous species, mainly the Arctiid moths Diacrisia and Estigmene species attack aerial yam leaves and bulbils. They caused considerable damage to the bulbils the principal planting material. They however exhibited a wide host range attacking other Dioscorea species and therefore do not appear to be good biological control candidates.