Open Access Original Research Article

Egg Quality Characteristics of Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Varying Levels of Fermented Taro Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta var esculenta) Meal

F. B. P. Abang, A. A. Ayuk, B. I. Okon

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/29324

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of FTCM on the egg quality parameters of Japanese quails. Two hundred and twenty five Japanese quails were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (1-V) of 36 hens and 9 cockerels each. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 12 hens and three cockerels per replicate. In each of the five diets, FTCM was used to replace maize at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% for treatments i, ii, iii, iv and v respectively.  Quails in this study were fed over a period of 70 days. Feed intake was measured daily and quails were weighed weekly .Eggs were collected on weekly basis for egg quality analysis. Results showed that, mean weekly egg weight, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk index and egg breaking strength of quails fed treatments i and ii were significantly(P<0.05) higher than those fed other treatments. Quails fed diets i, ii and iii recorded highest values of shell thickness. However, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences in relative yolk and relative albumen weights across treatments. The results suggest that FTCM could replace maize up to 100% without adverse effect, but for premium egg quality, replacement should not exceed 25%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enlist Weed Control Systems for Controlling Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in Enlist Soybean

David M. Simpson, Kristin K. Rosenbaum, Laura A. Campbell, Jeff M. Ellis, Leah L. Granke, Robert A. Haygood, Larry C. Walton

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31813

Aims: Evaluate glyphosate-resistant Conyza canadensis control with Enlist weed control systems that include sequential applications of burndown application prior to Enlist soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) planting followed by an early postemergence application to Enlist soybean.

Study Design: Studies conducted as randomized complete block with 4 replications. 

Place and Duration of Study: Twenty-one field studies were conducted between 2014 and 2015 growing seasons across soybean production areas in the United States.

Methodology: Prior to planting, burndown applications of glyphosate, glyphosate + 2,4-D choline, glufosinate, or glufosinate + 2,4-D choline were applied with and without sulfentrazone + cloransulam. At the V3 growth stage of Enlist soybean, postemergence applications of glyphosate, 2,4-D choline + glyphosate, glufosinate, 2,4-D choline + glufosinate or glyphosate + dicamba were applied according to the defined sequential program. Visual control ratings of weed control were taken at 4 weeks after each application.

Results: Conyza canadensis control at 4 weeks after the burndown application (28 DABA) was 54% for glyphosate, 97% for glyphosate + dicamba, 93% for 2,4-D choline + glyphosate, 85% for glufosinate, 92% for 2,4-D choline + glufosinate. Applying a second application of 2,4-D choline + glyphosate, 2,4-D choline + glufosinate or glyphosate + dicamba resulted in ≥95% control of Conyza canadensis 28 days after sequential application. The addition of sulfentrazone + cloransulam to the first application provided more consistent control at both observation dates.

Conclusion: Enlist E3 soybean enabled burndown applications or postemergence applications of 2,4-D choline Colex-D + glufosinate or glyphosate that provided >95% Conyza canadensis control. Residual herbicides sulfentrazone + cloransulam can be included in the burndown application to provide residual control. Early post-emergence applications of 2,4-D choline + glyphosate or glufosinate can be utilized to provide control of any surviving or newly emerged Conyza canadensis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short Duration, Perennial Grasses in Low Rainfall Sites in Montana: Deriving Growth Parameters and Simulating with a Process-Based Model

J. R. Kiniry, J. M. Muscha, M. K. Petersen, R. W. Kilian, L. J. Metz

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32232

Rangeland grasses in the arid western U.S. grow quickly, set seed, and senesce in a relatively short timeframe enabling them to survive and reproduce when the limited soil moisture is available. In addition, rangeland management in arid sites can benefit from process-based simulation tools to optimize grazing timing, intensity and duration and for assessing impacts of invasive species and of climate change. In this study, over three growing seasons, we derived the needed growth parameters for the ALMANAC model to simulate three common cool season grasses and one warm season grass in Montana. The parameters were then used with the model to simulate plant growth on three typical ecological sites near Miles City. Model parameters such as radiation use efficiency and potential leaf area index showed expected trends with the four grasses. Once the parameters were used with the ALMANAC model, simulations showed reasonable agreement with published NRCS grass yields for normal years, wet years, and dry years. Thus this process-based model and parameters such as those described herein will be valuable for assessing various management scenarios and climate variables in these types of low rainfall, western U.S. ecological sites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Administrative Measures to Sustainable Forestry Development in South-West Nigeria

O. I. Faleyimu, O. I. Akinyemi, B. O. Agbeja

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/15759

Forest administration is on ways of achieving effectiveness and efficiency in forestry development. The objective of this paper is to examine the administrative measures and their impacts on forestry development in the South-West Nigeria. Primary data needed for this study were collected from all the forest officers in charge of the 31 forestry administrative zones in the six states namely: Ekiti (four); Lagos (five); Ogun (four); Ondo (eight); Osun (six) and Oyo (four) and one forest officer from each of the six state’s headquarters. They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain data on forest administration. Thirty-seven forest officers were interviewed in all. Descriptive statistics and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (D) were used to analyze the data obtained. Result revealed that these administrative measures investigated in the South-West Nigeria are low: provision of up-to-date map of the study areas (48.6%), provision of equipment to run the forest affairs (40.5%), while the following are high: supervision of forest programmes (94.6%) and regular annual report (86.5%). Administrative measures investigated have significant relationship (P<0.01) with forestry development. A newly reconstructed and restructured forest sector, built on the pillars of adequate provision of equipment and effective supervision, would play a major role in sustainable forestry development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Structure and Regeneration of Croton scabiosus Bedd. (Euphorbiaceae) in Dry Forests of South Eastern Ghats of YSR Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India

L. Nagireddy, S. Nazaneen Parveen, T. Pullaiah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31498

Croton scabiosus Bedd. (Euphorbiaceae), an endemic tree of dry forests of South Eastern Ghats, is categorized a vulnerable tree. For effective conservation of this species studies on its population structure and regeneration are required. The population structure and regeneration of Croton scabiosus were studied in 11 localities of dry forests of Kadapa district, India, by laying 66 quadrats 5x200 m in size. A total of 2571 individual trees with a range of 61-100 individuals in each quadrat were recorded. The majority (81%) of the individuals are in 10-20 cm and 21-30 cm gbh class, followed by 19% of 31-40 cm gbh class. The height class distribution revealed that 74.06% trees are in 2-3 m height class, while 20.78% trees in 4-5 m height class and only 5.14% trees are 6-8 m height. In the regeneration category 8.8% of seedlings and 49.7% saplings were recorded. In addition, C. scabiosus is associated with 54 tree species belonging to 39 genera and 21 families. The most commonly associated tree species are; Acacia caesia, A. chundra, Cleistanthus collinus, Gardenia gummifera, Mimosa intsia, Ochna obtusa, Strychnus nux-vomica, Pterocarpus santalinus and Wrightia tinctoria. In certain sites C. scabiosus formed the dominant lower canopy tree in the elevation range of 155 m-328 m.