Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Rootstock Type and Scion Cultivar on Grafting Success and Growth of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Seedlings

R. R. Minja, A. A. Kimaro, M. Mpanda, S. Moshy, V. Mwaijande, A. Ngereza, J. Ambrose, A. Ndee, B. Kihula, G. Nyalusi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32129

Aim: To evaluate the effects of three types of rootstocks: (i) Ngwangwa (ii) Sindano and (iii) Zinzi commonly used in the coastal belt of Tanzania on grafting success and seedling growth of six improved mango cultivars: (i) Apple (ii) Ngowe (iii) Kent (iv) Keitt (v) Alphonso and (vi) Tommy Atkins.

Study Design: Plants were arranged in a split plot design with three replications. The rootstocks were main plots while the scion cultivars were subplots.

Place and Duration of Study: At Chambezi research farm of Mikocheni Agricultural research institute (MARI) located at 6°30’S and 38°55’E at altitude of 12 meters above sea level in the coastal belt of Tanzania, from January 2014 to March 2015.

Methodology: Seedlings were raised in polyethylene bags. Data on germination, plant height, root collar diameter (RCD), number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width before and after grafting were recorded at one month interval.

Results: Ngwangwa rootstock had the highest seed germination percentage (92.7%) followed by Zizi (69%) and the lowest Sindano (17.4%). The number of leaves was also maximum for Ngwangwa (21) followed by Sindano (16) and Zizi (13). The highest graft success with all tested scion cultivars was in the order of Ngwangwa (100%), Zizi (60%), and Sindano (52.5%). The interactions between the rootstocks and scion cultivars was significant (≤ 0.01) for leaf area, plant height, and RCD indicating that seedlings growth after grafting is influenced by type of rootstock and scion cultivar used.

Conclusion: Ngwangwa rootstock had the highest number of leaves, leaf size, graft take and compatibility among all the tested cultivars therefore considered a potential rootstock for grafting improved mango seedlings. However, high grafting success at the nursery stage does not always lead high scion growth. Therefore, a follow up field study to confirm the success of this rootstock is recommended prior to wider adoption by mango growers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmer’s Knowledge and Perception on Factors Limiting Maize Storage and Their Management in the Humid Rainforest and Highland Ecozones of Cameroon

Divine Nsobinenyui, Nelson N. Ntonifor, Eric B. Fokam

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32788

Aims: The study sought to determine planting dates, handling of the crop when mature and if farmers faced problems with maize ear rot/mould, insects and any other constraints and how they control these problems.

Study Design: Random interviewing of maize farmers.

Place and Duration of Study: Interviewed farmers in Ndop and Buea of the humid rainforest and highland ecological zones which are two agro-ecological zones of Cameroon respectively from September 2014 to January 2016.

Methodology: Structured questionnaires administered randomly to 300 farmers with 150 each from Ndop and Buea to document the constraints of handling and storing maize after maturity.

Results: The results showed that most farmers, 139 (92.7%) in Ndop and 123 (82.0%) in Buea planted maize in March. Most farmers in Ndop 137 (92.7%) stored maize in barns while most in Buea 106 (70. 7%) stored in bags. Most famers in Ndop 119 (79.3%) and Buea127 (84.7%) faced problems with maize ear rot/mould and this ear rot/mould is as a result of lack of storage infrastructure/drying facilities as most of them controlled this by drying; 96 (80.7%) out of those who had problems with ear rot/mould in Ndop dried maize in firewood kitchens and 96 (80.7%) of those in Buea sunned their maize as a control measure. They indicated that ear rot/mould prevented them from storing maize that was planted during first season (March, April and May). Also most farmers indicated they had problems with insects, 143 (95.3%) in Ndop and 117 (85.4%) in Buea. These insects create favourable conditions for ear rot/mould in Ndop (χ2 = 17.66, P = 0.001) and Buea (χ2 = 13.71, P = 0.00). Furthermore, Farmers in Buea reported that insects were gotten from the field in to stores (χ2 = 4.34, P = 0.04) as well as those from Ndop (χ2 = 10.67, P = 0.001). Famers had limited knowledge on the use of plant based products to control insects as only 4 (2.7%) used plant derivatives in Buea and relied more on the use of synthetic chemicals.

Conclusion:  to sustainably control maize ear rot/mould and stored insect pests, the following integrated approaches can be used; timely harvesting of maize, using appropriate drying technologies supplemented with judicious use of synthetic pesticides and environmentally friendly methods like plant-based products which are underexploited in Ndop and Buea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variation for Yield and Yield Components in Sole Soybean and Soybean/Celosia Inter-Crop in Makurdi (Southern Guinea Savanna Ecology), Nigeria

G. O. S. Ojo, A. Odoba

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/29137

Aims: To determine genetic variation in soybean grown alone and in soybean/celosia intercrop system, and to provide information on the appropriate system to concentrate in a breeding programme.

Study Design: The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications for each of the cropping systems in each of the years.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, during the cropping seasons of 2006 and 2008.

Methodology: Twenty - five to thirty - nine improved varieties of soybean were evaluated in sole and soybean/celosia intercrop for each of the years. Data were taken on days to flowering, plant height, number of pods/plant, 100 – seed weight and grain yield for soybean in both cropping systems. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and components of genetic variation.

Results: Highly significant difference in varieties was observed for all the traits studied in the sole and intercrop soybean for each of the years with significantly higher grain yield in 2008 compared to 2006 in both the sole and intercrop soybean due to planting at the recommended planting date for soybean in 2008.Genetic variance was higher than error variance for all the traits in the sole soybean except 100 – seed weight in 2006. Genetic variance in the intercrop soybean was lower than the error variance for three out of the five traits studied leading to proportionally lower heritability estimate and genetic advance for almost all the traits in intercrop soybean compared to sole soybean system.

Conclusion: The evaluated varieties of soybean are genetically diverse. A faster progress in selection will be achieved in the sole soybean and should be adopted in the selection of soybean genotypes for soybean/celosia intercrop system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Cassia mimosoides Leaf Extracts Against the Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and Nutritional and Organoleptic Quality Assessment of the Treated Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc

Abdoulaye Mahama, Clément Saidou, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine, Kouninki Habiba, Katamssadan Haman Tofel, Lame Younoussa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/31869

Aims: This present study aimed to assess the toxicity, the inhibition of progeny production and the reduction of weight losses of Cassia mimosoides (L.) leaf extracts against Callosobruchus maculatus (FAB.) on the bambara groundnut grains as well as the physico-chemical, sensorial and organoleptic characterization of that grains 3 months post-storage.

Place and Duration of Study: The toxicity tests were done from April to August 2016 in the laboratory of Applied Zoology of the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundere. The physico-chemical, sensorial and organoleptic characterization of bambara groundnut were determined in the laboratory of Food Chemical Engineering of the University Institute of Technology, University of Ngaoundéré from October to December 2016.

Methodology: Toxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated by exposing 20 adult weevils to 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg concentrations of the plant extracts mixed with bambara groundnut grains and the mortality of C. maculatus was monitored at 1, 3 and 6 days post-infestation. The inhibition effect of the plant products was assessed on the production of bambara groundnut pea beetle progeny F1. After 3 months of storage, the influence of Vsubterranea post-storage losses including weight loss, biochemical, sensorial and taste characteristics were also evaluated.

Results: C. mimosoides extracts caused a significant mortality of the weevil and also significantly reduced the progeny F1 production. The hexane extract was revealed the most effective causing 73.65% mortality, reduced completely the progeny F1 production at the lowest concentration of 5 g/kg. At the same concentration, hexane extract also protected completely bambara groundnut grains up to 3 months from the attack of pea beetle. After 3 months post-storage with the plant extracts, the nutritional value of the bambara groundnut was preserved since no variation in protein, sugar and mineral contents was recorded. Moreover, an improvement in taste, tenderness and crispness of bambara groundnut grains after processing was also noticed.

Conclusion: Thus, C. mimosoides products especially hexane extract could be used as a natural safe and biodegradable plant product to protect bambara groundnut grains from the weevil attacks in the storage for at least 3 months without its significant nutritional value degradation and taste change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineral Nutrients in Inflorescence Sap Produced from Various Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

Okoma Djéya Muriel Joelle, Konan N’ Guessan Ysidor, Konan Konan Jean-Louis, Assa Rebecca Rachel, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32557

Aims: To investigate mineral features correlated to coconut inflorescence sap produced from various varieties for contributing in quite valorization.

Study design: Four coconut varieties studied, namely Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD), West African Tall (WAT), and PB121+ and PB113+ hybrids. Coconut sap produced and sampled per variety. Sap samples processed into ashes and submitted to mineral analysis using energy dispersive spectrometer.

Place and Duration of Study: Marc Delorme Research Station for coconut (National Centre of Agronomic Research) and Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences (Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY University), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, between 2014 and 2015.

Methodology: Three coconut palms chosen for each variety and coconut sap produced using unopened inflorescence of rank 8. Sap harvested daily at 7 PM and 5 AM, and sampled by homogeneous volume mixture of both daily productions. Three days sampling implemented, leading to 12 coconut samples at overall. Sap samples processed into ash with oven. Minerals in ashes assessed using Energy Dispersive Spectrometer coupled with Scanning Electronic Microscope (EDS-SEM) device. Outcomes valued after analytical validation of the method used. Statistical treatment of Data using SPSS and STATISTICA softwares.

Results: Ash contents varying (P = .01) between 0.18% and 0.27% (w/w). Saps of MYD (0.26%) and PB113+(0.27%) were richer in ash compared to WAT and PB121+. Thirteen mineral nutrients measured in the coconut sap, 8 macroelements (K, Cl, Si, Na, Mg, P, S and Ca) and 5 oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Br). Macroelements recorded contents between 1.25 mg/100 g and 90.65 mg/100 g and oligoelements displayed contents varying from few traces to 0.70 mg/100 g (P < .05). Coconut sap produced from MYD correlated to greatest mineral properties, with large presence of K, P, Fe, Si, Na, S, and Mg. PB113hybrid also revealed highly significant sap minerals. Oppositely, sap of WAT resulted in lower mineral contents.

Conclusion: Regarding the nutritional interests for minerals, the consumption of coconut sap, especially that of MYD and PB113+ varieties, could result in successful contribution in food balance for populations and the trading of this foodstuff could provide substantial incomes for coconut farmers.