Open Access Method Article

Effect of Variation in Urea Concentration Used in Retting, on the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Fibres

Emmanuel C. Omenna, Olubusola F. Oduwaye

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32650

The overall aims of this study were to determine:

     i.          The effect of 1% and 2% urea solution on the α-cellulose, lignin and hemi cellulose content of kenaf fibre.
     ii.          The effect 1% and 2% urea solution on the tensile modulus and tensile strength of kenaf fibre.
     iii.            The effect 1% and 2% urea solution on the proximate compositions of kenaf fibre.

Study Design: Data obtained from each treatment were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Means were separated using Duncan multiple range test. Significant difference was accepted at P =.05.

Place and Duration: The retting experiment and laboratory analyses were carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University Ibadan, Nigeria. From April, 2015 to January, 2016.

Methodology: Two Kenaf stems were tied together as a replicate (with three replicates per treatment) and were soaked in improvised retting tanks containing 1% and 2% urea in 150litres of water and control (without urea). Fibres retted in 1%, 2% urea and control were subjected to proximate, chemical and mechanical assays. Microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the retting liquors were determined at two days interval.

Results: The urea treatment increased α-cellulose in kenaf fibres while the lignin content of Kenaf fibres was in the order: 2% urea > 1% urea > control. Two local varieties Ifeken DI 400 and Ifeken 400 recorded the least lignin. Hemi-cellulose content of Kenaf fibres from 1% urea was significantly lower than others. The highest protein and iron content were recorded in 2% urea followed by 1% urea and least in the control.

Conclusion: High enzyme activities in urea liquors ease   the retting process and this had produced fibres with promising chemical and mechanical properties. Kenaf fibres retted in 2% urea had better tensile strength and higher α-cellulose content.

Open Access Short Research Article

Response of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) Cultivar “Golden Acre” to Irrigation Intervals and Different Types of Mulches

Sunita Verma, o. P. Garhwal, Arun Kumar Mahawar, S. P. Singh, Bhawani Singh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/33197

 field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation intervals and mulches on growth and yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)” during Rabi season of 2015-16 at Horticulture Farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner. The experiment consisted of sixteen treatment combinations with four irrigation intervals (6, 9, 12 and 15 days) and four types of mulches (control, white polythene, black polythene and mustard straw) in randomized block design with three replications. The results of study clearly indicated that application of irrigation at 9 days interval as well as black polythene mulch significantly increased the growth parameters like (plant height, number of leaves, plant spread, leaf area and total chlorophyll content in leaves) and yield (head yield/plot, head yield/hectare) of cabbage. The interaction effect between irrigation at 9 days interval along with black polythene mulch was found statically at par to application of irrigation at 12 days interval along with mustard straw mulch with respect to head yield kg/plot (11.33 kg/plot) and yield q/ha (349.63 q/ha).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Agronomic Potential of Androgenic Pepper Genotypes Derived from Piran (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piran)

Fidanka Trajkova, Liljana Koleva Gudeva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/33807

Aims: This study was to evaluate and estimate the agronomic potential of two androgenic genotypes via important plant, fruit and production traits compared to the mother genotype Piran.

Place and Duration of Study: Strumica, Faculty of Agriculture, Goce Delcev University-Stip, Republic of Macedonia, four-years experiment.

Methodology: The experiment was set up in random block design in four replications. Evaluation of the androgenic genotypes was performed according to morphological traits given in Descriptor for Capsicumspp. The analysis of plant traits was conducted on 20 randomly chosen plants (5 plants per replication) in maximum growth stage from each androgenic genotype and the control Piran. The analysis of fruit traits was conducted on 40 randomly chosen fruits (10 fruits per replication) in ripe stage from each androgenic genotype and the control.

Results: Androgenic genotype P3 was characterized as tall pepper type with medium-thick stem and large leaves. According to the fruit weight (41.45 g) and the fruit index higher than 4, the genotype is classified as long, horn-shaped, middle-size fruit pepper. The fruit flesh of 77.05% and the pericarp thickness 0.26 cm characterized this fruit as medium-fleshy. Androgenic genotype P4 was characterized as very tall pepper type with medium-thick stem and medium-large leaves. The fruit weight was 42.84 g, contained averagely 7.37% dry matter, 76.71% fruit flesh and 0.25 cm pericarp thickness. P4 fruit was long, horn-shaped, medium-size and medium-fleshy. Fruits of both genotypes were suitable for fresh and preserved consumption.

Conclusion: Analysis of morphological and productivity traits of androgenic genotypes provides valuable information for future breeding. Androgenic genotype P3 differ from the initial genotype for four traits, while the P4 genotype for six traits. The results of this research prove the advantage of pepper androgenesis as a tool for enrichment of biodiversity and fast development of valuable pepper genotypes for future breeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Bacteria as Antagonist against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Paddy and as Plant Growth Promoter

Noor Aisyah Azman, Kamaruzaman Sijam, Erneeza Mohd Hata, Radziah Othman, Halimi Md Saud

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/33697

The aim of this study is to screen and characterize bacteria isolated from different sources that has potential as antagonistic bacteria against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight of paddy and as a plant growth promoter. Ninety three bacteria were successfully isolated from different sources including compost, rhizosphere, water, roots and leaves from paddy field. By using chloroform vapours method, only 16 bacterial isolates showed positive antagonistic activity indicated by inhibition zone around bacterial colony against Xoo on nutrient agar plate. Twelve antagonistic bacteria were able to produce protease indicated by clear halo zone around bacterial colony on skim milk agar. Fourteen antagonistic bacteria were able to produce cellulase indicated by clear zone against red colour of congo red. Fifthteen antagonistic bacteria were able to produce lipase indicated by crystallize zone around bacterial colony. All antagonistic bacteria were able to produce siderephore which exhibited by orange halo zone around bacteria colony on CAS agar. All 16 antagonistic bacteria were able to produce IAA indicated by red colour development of antagonistic bacterial culture supernatant mixed with Salkowski reagent. Only 13 antagonistic bacteria were able to solubilize phosphate shown by clear halo zone around the bacteria growth on NBRIP agar. All antagonistic bacteria were able to fix nitrogen indicated by colour change of Nitrogen free agar from green to blue. Molecular identification by 16s rRNA amplification successfully identified the antagonistic bacteria as Bacillus sp. (5), Acinetobacter sp. (2), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Pseudomonas putida (1), Burkholderia cepacia (1), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (1), Staphylococcus warneri (1), Pantoea vagans (1), Pantoea sp. (1), Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi (1) and Paenibacillus cineris (1)

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus and Sulphur on Nutrient and Amino Acids Content of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merill) under ‘Alfisols’

Sandeep Kumar, Javeed Ahmad Wani, Bilal Ahmad Lone, Asma Fayaz, Purshotam Singh, Sameera Qayoom, Zahoor A. Dar, Nazir Ahmed

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32742

A field experiment was conducted at KVK, Srinagar Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India, during two consecutive kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 to study the “Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill) under Eutrochrepts”. The experiment was laid down under 16 treatment combinations viz four levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90 kg P2O5 ha-1) and four levels of sulphur (0, 15, 30, 45 kg S ha-1) in randomized complete block design with three replication. At higher levels of phosphorus application, Zn content of seed decreased and it was maximum at 30 kg P2O5 ha-1. With application of 45 kg S ha-1, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S content in seed was 6.54, 0.555, 1.881, 0.329, 0.434 and 0.501% respectively while as Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn was 109.99, 99.96, 2.82 and 3.73 mg kg-1, respectively. A significant interaction between P and S on macro as well as micronutrient content except Zn in seed was observed. Combined application of phosphorus and sulphur further enhanced the nutrient content of soybean seed. Combined application of phosphorus and sulphur enhanced the crude protein and oil content in soya seed 1. Combined application of 45 kg S and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 recorded significantly higher carbohydrate content (23.49%) in soybean seed. Increasing levels of phosphorus and sulphur resulted in gradual increase in linoleic (Omega-6) and linolenic acid (Omega-3). Individual as well as interaction effect of P and S was significant in enhancing the sulphur containing amino acids viz., cystine cystein and methionine content of soybean seed.