Open Access Short Research Article

Trinexapac-ethyl Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivar Evaluations with Variable Rates of Nitrogen

D. B. Simmons, T. L. Grey, W. Faircloth, W. K. Vencill, T. M. Webster

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/33647

In the southeastern region of the United Sates, soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is grown in double-crop production systems. The plant growth regulator (PGR) trinexapac-ethyl is applied to improve wheat morphology by reducing height and increasing stem wall diameter, which can promote maximum yields. An experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2015 to evaluate the effects of trinexapac-ethyl with varying N rates on growth, lodging, and yield of five soft red winter wheat cultivars. Soft red winter wheat was treated with trinexapac-ethyl at 233 or 256 g ai ha-1at 60 d after planting, or as a split application of 128 g ai ha-1 60 and 108 d after planting. Nitrogen fertilizer at 112 or 168 kg ha-1 was applied at Feekes’ stage 3-4. Crop heights, spike counts per m2, and node length from the flag leaf to the base of the floral spike were collected 144 d after planting, with final yields, grain moisture, and test weight determined after harvest. There were no interactions for the main effects of PGR by nitrogen rate, PGR by cultivar, or cultivar by nitrogen rate. Trinexapac-ethyl at 256 at Feekes 4, or split applied at 128 g ha-1 at Feekes 4 and 7, significantly reduced soft red winter wheat height, and distance from the flag-leaf node to base of the floral spike as compared to the non-treated control. While there were no yield differences for trinexapac-ethyl treatments, height reductions and improved stem strength would reduce lodging that can often lead to crop failure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Heamoglobin and Potassium Polymorphism on Milk Production Traits in Goats

I. M. Sam, G. N. Akpa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32990

A study was conducted to determine the effect of hemoglobin (Hb-type) and potassium (k-type) types on milk yield characteristics of Agropastoral goats. Records were obtained from a total of 250 does over a period of one year. The milk yield characteristics were initial milk yield (IY), average daily yield (ADY), initial yield (IY), peak day (PD), peak yield (PY), and lactation length (LL).The data generated from the study were analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) procedure of SAS was used to separate the significant means. Hb-type significantly influenced some milk yield characteristics of the goats. Does with HbAA and HbAB were similar and significantly had (P<0.05) higher ADY and PY than HbBB. But there were no significant (p˃0.05) differences in milk yield characteristics when potassium types were consider, however animals of high potassium (HK) types were found to be favoured by natural selection in the region over low potassium (LK). It was concluded that, potassium and heamoglobin types can be explored to help in improving milk production traits of indigenous goats by identifying the heamoglobin and potassium types that are more adaptive to a particular environment and has a comparative advantage in milk yield characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fertility Management for Cassava Production in the Centre Region of Cameroon

Carine Nono Temegne, Francis Ajebesone Ngome

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/34111

Cassava is a major food crop in Cameroon. It has the capacity to grow under poor soils or drought conditions. However, little is known about the impact of fertilizer application on cassava production on poor ferralitic soils of Cameroon. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) fertilizer and poultry manure treatments on root yield of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The variety used (92/0326) was grown during the 2016/2017 cropping season in the Institute for Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) experimental farm at Nkolbisson, Yaounde, characterized by a rhodic ferralsol with very low pH and nutrient availability. Four treatments were applied: No input control (T0), 20-10-10 NPK fertilizer use (T1), 12-11-18 NPK fertilizer use (T2), poultry manure application (T3) in completely randomized block design. The data obtained were subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA) using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 Software. Level of significance was determined at 5% probability level. Pearson’s correlation test was performed at 0.1%, 1% and 5% level of probability. The results showed a significantly (< .001) higher vegetative growth with T3, T2 and T1 treatments compared to the control. In addition, the root yields were significantly higher (P < .001) in the fertilizer applied plots than the control. Thus, T3 was 149% > control, T2 65% > control and T1 33% > control. The dry matter contents were similar in control, T1 and T3, while a 10% decrease was observed with T2. Since organic and inorganic fertilizer use enhanced cassava root yield, it appears paramount to apply a combination of both fertilizer sources to obtain a stable increase in cassava yield under very poor ferralitic soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investıgatıon on the Rootstock Characterıstıcs of Tahar Apple (Malus sylvestrıs spp. Orıentalıs) Genotypes Grown ın Ürgüp Dıstrıct

Selma Boyacı, Semih Çağlar

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/34185

This study was conducted on local Tahar apples, which are under extinction, grown in Ürgüp District of Nevşehir Province of Turkey between 2010-2013 in order to evalute their potantial as a dwarfing rootstock for cultivated apples. Since dwarf growing Tahar apple trees are propagated by vegetative means, the population in the region was surveyed in order to find morphologically different genotypes, if possible. Seventeen putative different genotypes were labeled. Several morphological charactersitics of plants such as plant vigor, growth habit, ramification degree, internode lenght and root suckering status were determined.  The data collected from pro-selected 17 genotypes were evaluated with a Weighted Rankit Method with an emphasis to the requirement of dwarfing rootstock.

Three individuals with highest scores 50TE001, 50TE002 and 50TE012 were selected out of seventeen genotypes. Since there were very limited shoots on the pre-selected 17 genotypes, their budsticks were collected and budded on apple seedlings in the nursery to increase the shoot numbers for propagation experiments.The propagation ease of Tahar apples by green, soft wood and hard wood cuttings were investigated. The rooting ability of pre-selected genotypes was found to be very low or none; however, propagation by stoolbed was a success. On these plants, a detailed morphological characterisation according to UPOV criteria was performed. Also, molecular analysis (AFLP) were done in order to determine the genetic relativeness. The pre-selected genotypes fell into four phylogenetical groups. These genotypes were found to be genetically partly close to M.9. Because there were distinct differences among the individuals, the selected three Tahar apple genotypes 50TE001, 50TE002 and 50TE012 were considered as promising materials for developing a new dwarf apple rootstocks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Varietal Effect of Cowpea and Cow Dung Application Rates on the Productivity of Cocoyam/Cowpea Intercrop

Mary O. Iwuagwu, Dominic A. Okpara, Cosmos O. Muoneke

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32530

The varietal effect of cowpea and cow dung application rates on the productivity of cocoyam/cowpea intercrop were investigated in 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons at National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Mbato sub-Station, Imo State, Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were four levels (0, 10, 20 and 30 t/ha) of application of cow dung and two cowpea varieties of different growth habits (climbing Akidienu and erect IT97K-499-35) intercropped with cocoyam. The sole crops were included in other to access the productivity of the intercrop. Cocoyam growth and yield parameters assessed included plant height, leaf area index (LAI), number of corms, corm weight and corm yield while cowpea parameters evaluated were plant height, shoot and root dry weights, number of pods/plant, fresh pod weight, fresh pod yield, number of seeds/pod, 100 seeds weight and seed yield. Intercropping cocoyam with climbing Akidienu significantly (P < .05) increased cocoyam plant height but decreased significantly (P < .05) leaf area index (LAI) by 50% and corm yield by 44% on average. However, intercropping cocoyam with erect IT97K-499-35 had no significant effect on cocoyam plant height but significantly decreased LAI by 17% and corms yield by 23%. Fresh pod and seed yields were not affected by intercropping except in 2012 where fresh pod yield of erect IT97K-499-35 intercropped with cocoyam was significantly increased by 17% over the sole crop yield. Generally, erect IT97K-499-35 produced higher fresh pod and seed yields than climbing Akidienu in both cropping systems. Application of cow dung at 20 t/ha gave optimum corm yield while pod and seed yields of the cowpea varieties were improved by the lower rate of 10 t/ha.  Cocoyam mixed with erect IT97K-499-35 produced the highest mean total LER of 2.53; LEC of 1.44 and ATER of 1.58 when cow dung was applied at 20 t/ha.