Open Access Minireview Article

Edible Flowers

Funda Eryilmaz Acikgoz

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/34564

Edible flowers are among the important plant sources in terms of their nutritional content as well as aesthetic appearance. This mini review is written to increase awareness on edible flowers. For the study a set of both printed and electronic academic materials were examined and the findings were presented. This study is a brief review on edible flowers and their prominence in human nutrition. Due to their richness of antioxidant, anti-carcinogen, vitamin, and chemical composition; many researchers have revealed that these flowers may have a vital role in human nutrition along with the increasing fresh use and even for decorative purposes in kitchens today.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as Influenced by Population Density of Component Cowpea in a Sesame-cowpea Mixture

A. I. Afe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/32221

Aim: To study the effects of population density on the growth and yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) intercropped with cowpea (Vigna unquiculata L. Walp).

Materials and Methods: A field trial was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of kwara State University, Malete (08° 42ᶦᶦ 48.5N and 004° 26 17.9ᶦᶦ E) in the southern Guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria in 2014 cropping season. The treatments consisted of full population of sesame intercropped with 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% full population of cowpea. Sole sesame and cowpea were also included as control.  Cowpea populations were introduced into sesame at two weeks after planting.  The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Efficiency of intercropping was evaluated using land equivalent ratio (LER) and percentage yield difference indices (PYD).

Results: Intercropping significantly influenced growth and yield of cowpea, meanwhile, growth and yield of sesame were not affected by intercropping. The highest height of cowpea, 22.30 cm, was recorded when full populations of both crops were mixed. Combinations of full population of both crops produced lowest number of branches (1.03) and pods (1.87) per plants in cowpea and also recorded highest LER (1.30) and PYD (31%). Sole cowpea significantly out-yielded other treatment combinations in the intercrop.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated the suitability of intercropping sesame with cowpea in all the component population ratios tested with the best ratios when full populations of both crops were mixed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Pleurotus tuber-regium Biodegraded Rice Straw and Maize Offal: Brewer Yeast Slurry Mixture

A. A. Wuanor, J. A. Ayoade

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/34398

Aim: To assess the growth performance of West African Dwarf Goats (WAD) fed rice straw biodegraded using Pleurotus tuber-regium (PTTRS) and maize offal mixed with fluid brewers’ yeast slurry in a 1:1 ratio (MOBYS).

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Sheep and Goat Unit section of the University of Agriculture Makurdi Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Makurdi, Nigeria. Makurdi is located at Latitude 7º 43¹ N and Longitude 8º 31¹ E. The Experiment lasted for 90 days.

Methodology: Twenty four West African Dwarf (WAD) goats weighing 8.05 kg on the average were allotted to six groups of four goats per treatment in a completely randomized design for the study. The six dietary treatment groups were fed varying levels of MOBYS, and ad libitum, untreated rice straw (UTRS) and Pleurotus tuber-regium treated rice straw (PTTRS) thus: T1= 100 g MOBYS and UTRS (control) ad libitum, T2=100 g MOBYS and PTTRS ad libitum, T3=200 g MOBYS and UTRS ad libitum, T4=200 g MOBYS and PTTRS ad libitum, T5=300 g MOBYS and UTRS ad libitum, and T6=300 g MOBYS and PTTRS ad libitum. Parameters measured were Average daily feed intake (ADF), Average Daily body Weight Gain (ADBWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Average daily water intake (ADWI).

Results: Fungal treatment of rice straw together with MOBYS significantly (P=.05) improved the daily feed intake, daily body weight gain and daily water intake from 224.20 g to 396.10 g, 13.20 g to 27.20 g and 620 ml to 1050 ml in T1 and T6 respectively.

Conclusion: Combined feeding of the PTTRS and MOBYS to goats in confinement significantly improved feed intake, body weight gain, water intake and feed conversion ratio thereby portraying the feeding regime as a reliable dry season feed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potentials of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF) and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) Leaves Extract as Biological Control Agents against the Sweet Potato Weevil (Cylas puncticollis Boh.) in Two Agro-ecological Zones of Cameroon

Minista Issa, Albert Ngakou, Christophe Laba Haouvang, Elias N. Nukenine

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/35248

Sweet potato [Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.] ranks second in production and value after cassava among the root crops in Cameroon. Its production has been declining mainly due to the damaging effects of Cylas puncticolis Boheman (Coleoptera: Apionidae), its primary pest. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi, aqueous neem leaves extract and synthetic chemical fertilizer-NPK against C. puncticolis. The experiment was conducted under field conditions at Garoua and Ngaoundere, respectively in the agro-ecological zone I and II, and during the two consecutive cropping seasons of 2013 and 2014. Results indicate that, whereas  mycorrhiza improved the stem length by 58 and 64%, the combination neem-mycorrhiza did so by 59 and 66%, respectively for the local and the TIB1 sweet potato varieties compared to treatment control that weakly enhanced the stem length. Neem-mycorrhiza and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza alone in this order contributed to a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of damages caused to the local sweet potato variety by C. puncticollis within the two agro-ecological zones. Among the cultivated varieties used in the field, the local variety proved to be more resistant to pest infestations, despite its low yield (12.65 t/ha) compared to the improved variety TIB1 (15.82 t/ha).

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Reference Evapotranspiration Estimates Obtained by Different Methods in Relation to the Penman-Montheith Method in Cerrado Environment, Brazil

E. M. Biesdorf, E. B. Maciel, M. F. F. Teixeira, J. S. Teixeira, P. H. H. Salla, L. D. Pimentel, H. M. A. Imbuzeiro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/34898

Water is the most limiting resource for crop production, however, erroneous estimates of the amount needed to be applied can increase production costs, influence plant nutrition and contaminate the ecosystem. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the values of Etobtained by the methods of Blaney-Criddle, solar radiation and Ivanov with the values resulting from the use of Penman-Monteith method in cerrado environment, Brazil. To estimate evapotranspiration values were used the daily data of the maximum and minimum temperatures, wind speed, amount of daylight hours and relative humidity of the years of 2010 and 2011. To compare the estimated values, the parameters of the regression equation a and b, coefficient of determination (r2), correlation coefficients (r), agreement (d) and confidence (c) were considered. Based on the Penman-Monteith method, it was verified that all the other methods evaluated overestimate the values of Et0 during the whole evaluated period. Despite this, it was founded a good correlation between the Blaney-Criddle method and the Penman-Montheith method. The solar radiation and Ivanov methods presented low coefficient of determination when compared to the PNM method. It was concluded that the reference evapotranspiration, on a daily scale, can be quantified using the Blaney-Criddle method instead of the Penman-Monteith method. Furthermore, the solar radiation and Ivanov methods, despite the good agreement and performance indexes, present the greatest distortions during the year.