Open Access Original Research Article

The Efficacy of Zingiber officinale (Ginger-Zingiberaceae) Crude Extracts Applied as Individual and Mixed with Dennettia tripetala (Pepperfruit-Annonaceae) against Musca domestica (Housefly) Larvae

Cynthia Chioma Ojianwuna, Francisca Ifeomah Surveyor

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2017/v17i54662

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Zingiber officinale applied individually and mixed with Dennettia tripetalain equal proportions; their insecticidal strength was also compared using dipping and feeding techniques.

Methodology: Insects were cultured in cages (30 cmx30 cmx30 cm) built with wood, nets and gauze at the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology Laboratory. Freshly emerged larvae (1 day old) were used for the bioassay. The cages were placed on plastic stands which contained engine oil to prevent infestation of other insects and mites. 20 larvae each, were transferred into petri dishes containing larvae food (2 ml of powdered milk mixed with distilled water) using fine art brush.The plants (Z. officinale) rhizome D. tripetalafruits were purchased from the market. Z. officinale rhizome was sliced into tiny pieces while D. tripetalaskin was peeled off to obtain the seeds. They were dried at ambient temperature (28±2°C) for four weeks, afterwards they were grounded with an electric blender (Philips) and sieved with 0.1mm mesh size sieve to obtain fine powder which was stored in an airtight container to prevent the active ingredients from evaporating and kept in a cupboard until the time for use. The crude extracts were obtained by homogenizing 10 g of dust (plant sample) with 100 ml (80/20) of solvents (v/v) (hydro-ethanol) and left for 24 hours thereafter, it was filtered with a filter paper and the residue (active compound) was evaporated over a water bath at 40°C. To obtain the final concentration; the extracts were dissolved in a known volume of distilled water; for example, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm were obtained by dissolving 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mg of extract in a ml of distilled water. Mortality and means were monitored every 12 hours for 72 hours. The experiment was replicated twice with distilled water serving as control. The toxicity was also tested using dipping and feeding techniques.

Results: Showed the mortality observed within a period of 72 hours, percent mortality and probit mortality of Z. officinale on M. domestica larvae using dipping and feeding technique. The result showed that mortality was significant (P<0.05) as concentrations increased from 200-1000 ppm but mortality was not significant as duration of exposure increased from 12-72 hours. The LC50 and LT50 were 0.4898 mg/ml and 40 hours. No mortality was observed when the insects were fed with crude extracts but they (insect larvae) were weakened (their movement was sluggish and they did not pupate. When Z. officinale and D. tripetalawere mixed in equal proportions using dipping and feeding techniques, mortality of the larvae was generally significant (p<0.05) as both concentrations and duration of exposure increased. When they were dipped in the mixed crude extract, LC50 and LT50 of 0.2754 mg/ml and 30 hours were obtained while LC50 and LT50 of 0.4786 mg/ml and 44 hours were obtained when they were fed with the mixed crude extract.

Conclusion: This result showed that plant extracts used for this study could be promising bioinsecticide especially when mixed in equal proportion and may be considered in integrated pest management of housefly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Adoption of Technologies for Cashew Production in Nampula, Mozambique

Amancio Nhantumbo, Hironobu Takeshita, Americo Uaciquete, Satoshi Miura

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36035

This study analyzed determinants of adoption and intensity of use of Technologies for Cashew Production (TCP) in Nampula, Mozambique. We used cross-sectional data collected from 258 farmers’ household in 2016. A double-hurdle model was employed to assess the determinants of adoption and intensity of planting grafted seedlings and use of fungicide. The results showed that 27% of the households planted grafted seedlings with an intensity of seven seedlings annually, and 46% of famers used fungicide at 38% of intensity. Empirical results revealed that the major determinants of adoption of TCP are formal education, price of cashew nut and access to extension services. While the intensity of use is influenced by age of the household head and availability of family labor. Training in cashew was important factor for adoption and intensity of use of grafted seedlings. Adoption was higher in the district of Angoche and lower in Erati for both assessed technologies. Enhancing extension services and ensuring better cashew nut price policy are important measures for increasing adoption of grafted seedlings and fungicide application.

Open Access Original Research Article

AMMI Determination of Stability for Oil and Protein Content in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) Seed in Zambia

M. Hampango, P. Cheelo, M. D. Lungu, M. Mwala, H. Agrama

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/35583

Aims: The aim of the study was determine the yield and stability of oil and protein content of different genotypes in different locations in Zambia. The specific objectives were to characterize the test soybean genotypes for oil and protein content across selected environments and to understand the environments in Zambia with respect to Soybean quality stability.

Study Design: A Randomised Complete Block Design with four (4) replications at each location was used to carry out the experiment. Each plot had 4 rows of 6 m long each.

Place and Duration of Study: A multi- environment trial was carried out in the 2013/2014 agricultural season in five locations (Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust (GART), Kabwe, Msekera, Misamfu and Masumba Research stations) spread in the three (3) agro -ecological regions of Zambia.

Methodology: As this study focused on seed variables, protein and oil, seed was collected at harvest and was dried at a moisture content of 13.5%. The field trial had four replications, however for the current study; only two replications were used for analysis due to the inhibiting cost of determining the oil and protein content. Samples of 35 g were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. Protein and oil concentration was determined by Department of Crop Sciences at University of Illinois using a Perten DA7200 Diode Array Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) analyzer with built in calibration.

Results: Msekera had the highest location mean (18.98%) with regards to oil content among the five locations and GART had the lowest location mean (16.38%). The genotypes were equally significantly different for oil content with Lukanga having the highest across location with an average oil content of 19.47% and TGX 1830-20E as the lowest oil containing genotype with 16.73%. As regards to the Protein content, GART had the highest location mean (38.23%) across all five locations and Misamfu had the lowest location mean (33.47%) Significant differences among genotypes were evident when all fifteen genotypes were considered across the five locations with TGX 1830–20E having the highest genotype mean (37.57%) across locations and Lukanga having the lowest mean (33.1%) for protein content across locations. The genotype G11 (TGX 1989-60F) exhibited the best stability with regards to oil content and the most unstable was G15 (Lukanga).

Conclusion: The study was able to establish the performance of the genotypes across the locations and understand the locations with respect to oil and protein content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Suitability of Various Agro-Wastes for Productivity of Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus eryngii Mushrooms

Funda Atila

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36346

The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of various lignocellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus eryngii and to determine the correlations between lignocellulosic content of agricultural wastes and productivity of these mushroom species. In the study, Pleurotus djamorPleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus eryngii were cultivated on oak sawdust (OS), bean straw (BS), safflower hay (SH) and sunflower head residue (SFH). Substrates were analysed for cellulose and lignin content using acid detergent fiber methods Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and Acid detergent lignin (ADL), while N content was determined by Kjeldhal method. Several cultivation parameters (spawn running time, time to first primordia initiation, time to first harvest, yield, biological efficiency (BE%) and avarage mushroom weight) were evaluated during cultivation cycle. The most suitable substrates for mycelial growth showed to be SH and BS while mycelial growth was slower on OS substrate for all Pleurotus species tested. Biological efficiency of P. djamor and P.eryngii cultivated on SH (77.8% and 73.1, respectively) and BS (78.2% and 67.0%, respectively) were higher than OS (62.5% and 66.6%, respectively). The most suitable substrate for P. citrinopileatus was OS (73.9%). It was not found a correlation between chemical content of growing substrates and yield of P. djamor and P. eryngii. On the other hand, unlike P. djamor and P. eryngii, the positive relationship obtained between yield of P. citrinopileatus and cellulose (r2 =0.973) and lignin contents (r=0.991) of growing substrates. This result shows that cellulose and lignin contents have not got influence on fructification of P. djamor and P. eryngii, but are an important factor for fruit body formation of P. citrinopiletus. Based on the biological efficiency of the substrates tested, bean straw and safflower hay could be recommended as an alternative substrate to sawdust and wheat straw for P. eryngii and P. djamor cultivation. Morever, sunflower head residue may be used as an alternative for P. citrinopileatus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Present Status of Pond Fish Farming: Evaluation from Small Scale Fish Farmer under Saidpur Upazila, Nilphamari, Bangladesh

Saokat Ahamed, Khandaker Rashidul Hasan, Yahia Mahmud, Md. Khaliur Rahman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/35682

The present study was conducted to know the status of pond fish farming in Saidpur upazila under Nilphamari district of Bangladesh. The survey research was conducted on 40 fish farmers during October 2016 to March 2017). Farmers were randomly selected from selected areas. Primary data were collected through a survey questioner; secondary data were collected from relevant literature. Average size of ponds was 8-30 decimals and containing 3-6 month water holding capacity with 65% seasonal pond. Average stocking density was found 1500-2000 fry/ha. Most of the farmer applied locally feed. About 30 % people did not found fish diseases, 55 % people mentioned that diseases occurred occasionally and 15% found outbreaks of diseases in every year.  Production rate of the 40% respondents were very low only 20% were high, main problem is water scarcity and inadequate technical knowledge therefore more extension and research are needed to increasing production.