The study was undertaken to estimate the percentage oil content variability and genetic divergence for seed and seedling characters of 17 Candidate Plus Trees (CPTs)/half-sib families of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L) collected from different locations of Kashmir (temperate) and Laddakh (arid) regions in India. Seeds of 17 candidate plus trees were collected and graded to constitute seed lots of different CPTs. After the dimensional measurements for seed and kernel characters, part of the seeds from seed lots of each CPT/family were analyzed for oil content estimation. Part of the constituted seed lots of each family/CPT were sown in open field environmental conditions in the nursery following Randomized Block Design (RBD), with a view to assess the expression of genetic diversity using Non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis. Intercrossing of divergent groups would lead to greater opportunity for crossing over, which releases hidden variability by breaking linkage. Candidate plus tree progenies were grouped into five clusters under open field environment. Inter-cluster distance was found to be highest between cluster III and IV, revealing their genetic closeness from high to low. On the basis of inter and intra cluster distance cluster no. III and IV may be considered as diverse and can be utilized for hybridization when selecting genotypes for breeding purposes. Seedling height followed by oil content (%) and number of branches/seedling respectively, contributed maximum to the total divergence and played a prominent role in creating the genetic diversity.
Garlic cloves were purchased from the local market and made into powdery form by mincing and sun-drying. One hundred and ninety-two day old commercial broilers were randomly allotted to four treatments and four replicates. Garlic powder was introduced into the experimental broiler diets as an additive at 0 gKg-1 (control diet), 2 gKg-1, 3 gKg-1 and 4 gKg-1 inclusion levels in diets 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The performance parameters in the experiment were progressively improved by increasing dietary garlic powder from 2 gKg-1 up to 3 gKg-1 and reduced thereafter when dietary garlic powder level was beyond 3 gKg-1 garlic inclusion. The experimental birds were given feed and water ad-libitum while this phase lasted a period of 28 days (starter phase). The best growth performance and carcass characteristics (highest percentage dressed weight, percentage eviscerated weight, thigh, drumstick, and wing) were achieved at 2 gKg-1 garlic addition. The investigated serum constituents indicated a facilitation of hypocholesterolemic functions from the group of birds fed with diet containing 2 gKg-1 garlic. The inclusion level of garlic at 2 gKg-1 in the present experiment appeared to be most suitable as an additive in broiler starter phase (1-28 days) diets capable of engendering growth performance while also exhibiting hypocholesterolemic tendencies.
Rice is the staple food crop and it grows in three seasons in Bangladesh. The optimum transplanting time can satisfy its appropriate temperatures and solar radiation for vigorous vegetative growth and maximum grain yield. Recently, climate change affected the transplanting date of crops which recalls us to determine optimum transplanting date of rice in Bangladesh. To optimize the transplanting date in transplanting Aman (T. Aman) season, field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different transplanting dates on yield and yield components of rice. Four transplanting dates (20th July, 4th August, 19th August and 3rd September) of two rice varieties including BR11 and BRRI dhan39 were used to design the experiment. Results revealed that seedlings transplanted on 4th August led to maximum grain yield. Also, they produced maximum number of productive (panicle bearing) tillers, number of grains per panicle, and 1000-grain weight. From this study, it can be concluded that farmers should transplant rice on 4th August at T. Aman season in Bangladesh for getting maximum benefit from their unit area.
Caffeine is one of the main components of green tea and has side effects such as sleeplessness. Senior citizens, children, and pregnant woman should avoid tea despite its known beneficial effects. In this study, we developed green tea with reduced caffeine content (low caffeine tea) as a palatable tea that can be offered to everyone. To reduce the tea’s caffeine content, we subjected the plucked tea leaves to a hot-water spray process, and successfully produced a low caffeine tea infusion with 30% the caffeine content. The concentrations of other main components, such as catechins and theanine, in the low caffeine tea infusion did not differ from the control. Further, the physiological function of the tea was assessed; the anti-oxidative activity was investigated using a stable free radical and the anti-lipase activity using an artificial substrate. There were no significant differences between the infusions of low caffeine tea and green tea in anti-oxidative and anti-lipase activities. The results showed that our developed low caffeine tea could be an attractive high quality tea with health benefits for everyone.
Studies of dumpsites have revealed that the surrounding soils and water are contaminated with high threshold of heavy metals through anthropogenic inputs. In this review, the uptake and toxicity risks of these heavy metals by habitual edible plants at levels above threshold limit and the implications for public health have been discussed. Edible plants are plants with nutritional and medicinal potentials which can salvage numerous human and animal needs when taken. Edible plants like most other underutilized plants in dumpsites have developed mechanisms which enable them to not only survive but accumulate high level of toxic heavy metals due to high level of environmental metal load in the dumpsites. This ultimately could lead to high human and animal exposure to these toxic elements through food-chain/food-web or direct ingestion of soils. The toxic effects caused by excess concentrations of these heavy metals in living organisms vary considerably and present numerous clinical situations ranging from neurological disorder, cellular damage among others and death in extreme cases. This review suggest the urgent need for policy makers to regulate the use of dumpsites for arable farming and the dependence on edible plants in dumpsites to avert heavy metal poisoning in populations.q