Aims: To study the influence of various training techniques on vegetative growth characteristics and yield of cucumber grown under protected cultivation.
Study Design: Randomized Block Design with three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: Research farm, Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur during spring summer season 2016.
Methodology: The experiment consists of seven different training methods. The observations were recorded viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, days to first harvest, fruit weight (g), number of fruits/plant, fruit yield/plant (kg), harvest duration (days), inter-nodal length (cm) and vine length (m). Observations were recorded from 5 plants chosen at random in each replication and then average was worked out for each parameter.
Results: Treatment comprised of single stem (T1) recorded least number of days to 50 per cent flowering (23.67), minimum days to first picking (35.00 days), highest fruit weight (136.23 g), harvest duration (56.00 days), vine length (2.26 m) and minimum inter nodal length (9.34 cm) which was statistically similar with treatment comprising of single stem with side shoot training after 3 leaves (T2) to all these characters respectively. Whereas the treatment comprised of three stems with side shoot training after 3 leaves (T6) obtained maximum number of fruits/plant (28.23) which was significantly superior to all other treatments and maximum fruit yield/m2 area (8.27 kg) which was statistically at par with treatment comprising of three stems (T5).
Conclusion: It was concluded that plants trained to single stem had better vegetative characters but plants trained to three stems with side shoot training after three leaves had higher yield/m2 area.
Ideal protein concept was tested by evaluating the growth performance and nitrogen utilization of broiler birds (0-28 days). The most limiting essential amino acids (EAAs), L-Lysine, DL-Methionine, L-Tryptophan and L-Threonine were used in supplementing broiler diets in which crude protein levels were reduced across the diets. Crude protein (CP) levels varied from 23.0% in the control diet with the addition of the most limiting EAAs to other diets. Diet 6 had the lowest CP of 11.0%. Growth parameters and nitrogen retention were investigated and data obtained were analysed statistically using Minitab (Version 16). The feed intake reduced significantly (P<0.05) across the diets with the highest value of 58.68±0.03g/b/d obtained for birds on the control diet of 23.0% CP and the lowest FI value obtained for birds on 11.0% CP diet with EAAs supplementation. The average weight gain (WG) also had the highest value of 33.47±0.03g/b/d for birds on the conventional control diet. Birds on the least CP inclusion of 11.0% (diet 6) had the lowest average WG of 13.35±0.87g/b/d. Expectedly, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) had the best and lowest value of 1.75±0.01 for birds on the conventional control diet and the lowest for birds on the 11.0% CP (diet 6) at 3.31±0.20. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) had the best and highest value of 3.23±0.06 for birds on the 14.0% low crude protein diet. The average nitrogen retention (NR) had the highest significant value of 0.78±0.02gN for birds on the 11.0% CP diet (diet 6). The lowest significantly different (P<0.05) AND value of 45.65±0.79% was obtained for birds on 11.0% low CP diet supplemented with EAAs. Birds on conventional control diet in which 23.0% CP was used with an animal protein source and birds on 20.0% CP with EAAs supplementation had the best similar FCR of 1.75±0.01and 1.90±0.02, respectively. Crude protein can be reduced by 3 percentage points from the conventional 23.0% (NRC 1994 recommendation) to 20.0% CP without any detrimental effects on the growth performance indices of broiler starter birds (1-28 days).Protein efficiency ratios were better for growing birds on EAAs supplementation.
Two field experiments were conducted for two years at the Multipurpose crop nursery, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong-Ashanti from May to August, 2015 and 2016 respectively to evaluate varietal response of maize (Omankwa and Obatanpa) to integrated nutrient management of NPK and Chicken manure [3 t ha-1 CM, ½ CM + ½ NPK (32.5:19:19 kg ha-1 NPK) and ¾ CM + ¼ NPK]. The experimental design was a 2 x 5 factorial arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The result showed that there was a significant (p< 0.05) differences between Obatanpa and Omankwa and fertilizer type in total grain yield in both cropping seasons. Omankwa grown under 65:38:38 kg ha-1 NPK and 3 t ha-1 CM produced higher grain yield and longer cob length during the 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons respectively. Obatanpa grown on 65:38:38 kg ha-1 NPK produced thicker cob diameter, higher dry matter accumulation, taller plants at 77 days after planting, and total grain yield in both cropping seasons. Obatanpa grown under 3 t ha-1 CM produced the longest cob length and heaviest 100 seed weight during the 2016 cropping season. Obatanpa grown under ¾ CM + ¼ NPK produced thicker cob diameter during the 2016 cropping season. In conclusion (i) Farmers are encouraged to grow Omankwa on 65:38:38 kg ha-1 NPK or 3 t ha -1 CM for higher grain yield and longer cob length. (ii) Farmers who prefer inorganic fertilizers for increased grain yield, cob length and thicker cob diameter of Obatanpa maize should apply 65:38:38 kg ha-1 NPK. (ii) Farmers who practise organic agriculture in transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana should apply 3 t ha-1CM and ¾ CM + ¼ NPK to enhance maize grain weight, cob length and cob diameter respectively.
A field experiment was conducted at Norman E Borlaug Crop Research Center, Pantnagar, India during 2011-12 and 2012-13. The experiment was laid in a factorial split plot design with resource conservation technology practices i.e., Tillage system (conventional and reduced tillage), Mulching (no and straw mulch) and Fertility levels (100 and 75% RDF) were compared in three rice based cropping systems rice-wheat (CS1); rice-vegetable pea-greengram (CS2); and rice-potato-maize (CS3) sequences. The aim of the research was to evaluate the energy use efficiency of different rice based cropping systems under resource conservation technology (RCT) practices. The results revealed that total system productivity (TSP) of cropping system was higher in reduced tillage system (9.8% higher) when compared to conventional tillage. The greatest crop sequence total system productivity of 21420 kg ha-1 was achieved with paddy straw mulched treatments. Consequently, CS3 recorded higher total system productivity followed by rice-vegetablepea-greengram system (CS2). The result further revealed that a combined application of RCT required 6-10% less energy requirement than conventional system while generated 99-143 and 25-52% higher output energy in CS3 and CS2, respectively over conventional practices in rice-wheat system (CS1). RCT practices recorded higher efficiency of energy levels as compared to conventional systems. The economic analysis also revealed that the maximum benefits could be obtained from resource conservation practices.
Aim: To evaluate the comparative efficacy of different chemical insecticide and biopesticide combinations against tur pod fly [Melanagromyza obtusa (Malloch)], gram pod borer [Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)] and tur pod bug (Clavigralla gibbosa Spinola) on pigeonpea.
Study Design: Randomized Block Design with three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during Kharif seasons of 2015-16 and 2016-17.
Methodology: The experiment consisted of eight treatments having different combinations of insecticides and biopesticides including untreated control. Effectiveness of these treatment regimes was determined on the basis of per cent pod and grain damage due to major insect pests and grain yield of pigeonpea.
Results: Treatment regimes having combinations of chemical insecticides and biopesticides were found to be more effective in comparison to treatments modules where there was sole use of biopesticides. The treatment comprising of sequential application of Multineem 0.03% followed by second spray of Rynaxypyr 18.5 SC @ 30 g a.i./ha and third spray of Indoxacarb 15.8 EC @ 73 g a.i./ha at 15 days interval was significantly superior in managing M. obtusa, H. armigera and C. gibbosa on pigeonpea over rest of the treatments in terms of lower pod and grain damage and higher grain yield. However, all the insecticidal treatment modules were found significantly superior over untreated control.
Conclusion: Sequential application of Multineem 0.03% - Rynaxypyr 18.5 SC @ 30 g a.i./ha - Indoxacarb 15.8 EC @ 73 g a.i./ha may be considered for recommendation in alternate sprays for managing major insect pests on long duration pigeonpea in Varanasi region of Indo-Gangetic plain.