Open Access Systematic Review Article

Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) in Climate Change Scenarios and Its Potential for Wastewater Bioremediationin Semi-Arid Regions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz, Patrícia da Silva Costa, José Dantas Neto, Franklin Alves dos Anjos, Newcélia Paiva Barreto, Liliane da Silva Soares, Ivomberg Dourado Magalhães, Marcelo de Andrade Barbosa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36730

Anthropogenic actions have caused climatic changes and contamination of water resources, generating negative consequences for plants and instigating the search for new alternatives for water treatment. The objective of this work was to use a systematic and narrative review in databases and meta-analysis to assess the state of the art on the implications of climate changes in forage palm crop and to highlight the potential of this cactus for wastewater bioremediation, as well as to verify if this form of water treatment is used in semi-arid regions, especially in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Systematic review, narrative and meta-analysis were used, searching the database. The articles obtained with a theme pertinent to the study were carefully analyzed. The data were submitted to descriptive analysis and meta-analysis using random effects model. It was verified that the forage palm is a strategic crop for cultivation in the semi-arid, mainly for its expressive adaptive capacity, through the activation of defense mechanisms against sudden variations in temperature, CO2 atmospheric concentration, photosynthetic active radiation and soil water availability. In addition, forage palm has a high potential for wastewater bioremediation, reaching an average of 82.71% of water contaminants. In one study, the authors report that this cactus is abundant and can be used for bioremediation of wastewater in semi-arid regions such as northern Ethiopia. No studies were found with the use of palm for bioremediation of wastewater in the semi-arid region of Brazil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Prolonged Drought on Groundwater Quality: Irrigated Perimeter of Lower Acaraú – State of Ceará– Northeast of Brazil

Leonaria Luna Silva de Carvalho, Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda, Fernando Bezerra Lopes, Clayton Moura de Carvalho, Raimundo Rodrigues Gomes Filho, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36480

This study had with objective to evaluate the influence of climatic seasonality and dry season prolonged on parameters of the groundwater quality of irrigated perimeter of lower Acaraú - Ceará, for the years 2010, 2011, 2015 and 2016. Hydrochemical analyzes of the attributes of HCO3-, Ca2+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+, pH, EC, SAR and Na+ in the periods of june (2011; 2015; 2016) and november (2010; 2015; 2016) were performed in six ponds for comparison with previous study. In 2016 it was held on reading the water level of the ponds to identifythe water table variation. The cluster analysis was applied by software SPSS 16.0, where the means of the groups were compared by the T test with 5% significance and presented in boxplot. The Piper Diagram was used in the classification and evaluation of waters. The methodology of the Salinity Laboratory of the United States was used in the evaluation of irrigation water quality with the use of Qualigraf software. The groundwater dynamics indicated that the prolonged drought reduced the water the level of the water table. There was the formation of two groups. Group 1 did not indicatethe reduction of rainfall in the years 2012 to 2016, showing similarity with the attributes of the year 2011 to 2015 and 2016. The elevation of salinity indicator variables in group 2 was obtained due to their location. The classes of irrigation water ranged from C1S1 to C3S2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Farmers’ Saved Seed and Improved Seed on Maize Productivity in South Western Nigeria

J. O. Olasoji, O. A. Egbetokun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/34437

Availability of good quality seeds of crop varieties is still the major constraint for farmers in the South Western Nigeria in spite of the existence of national seed program for decades. Farmers have been using their own saved seeds for cultivation without completely knowing its properties and thus incurring losses. Therefore, this study aim to assess the benefits of using improved seed of maize over farmers’ saved seed.

The experiment was carried out in 4 states of the South Western Nigeria representing three different agro-ecological zones. 10 farmers growing maize were randomly selected from each state to make a community group. Five varieties were planted out of which four were improved seeds and the other variety was farmers’ seed. Planting was done on 20 meters by 5 meters at 75 cm by 50 cm on farmers’ field in wet season of 2015. Fertilizer application at the rate of 120 kg of Nitrogen, 60 kg of Phosphorus and 60 kg of potassium was carried out in two splits.

Grain weight per plot was obtained by shelling all ears harvested from each plot. Partial budgeting was used as analytical technique which includes Net Benefit (NB), Incremental Net Benefit (INB) and Benefit- Cost Ratio (BCR). Varietal mean showed highest yield of 3.93 metric tons in ILE-I-OB and the least yield of 3.020 metric tons was recorded by the farmers’ varieties (Local). The partial budget analysis revealed that there is increase in the net benefit of maize varieties across the ecologies. The local variety gave on the average the lowest net benefit of N 73, 580 while ILE-1-OB variety has the highest net benefit of N 122,720.

It was concluded that maize varieties namely ILE-1-OB and BR9928DMR-SR-Y should be adopted by farmers in the study area for short and long run economic benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dormancy Studies in Apple Trees Cultivars Grown under Mild Climate

I. de Albuquerque, P. C. Mello- Farias, R. R. Yamamoto; A. L. S. Chaves; M. B. Malgarim, F. G. Herter

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2017/v18i34632

Aims: In order to research dormancy dynamics in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ‘Eva’ (low chilling requirement) and ‘Mollie’s Delicious’ (high chilling requirement) in the year of El Niño occurrence.

Study Design: Complete randomized experimental design was arranged in bifactor scheme with four replications to each cultivar. Factor A was the conditions (Field condition and Forcing condition), and factor B comprised the sampling date (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), differing on chilling accumulation hours, which were measured by Embrapa climatic stations, cv. ‘Mollie’s Delicious’ (89 h, 156 h, 176 h, 324 h, 367 h), and cv. ‘Eva’ (60h, 119h, 124h, 161h, 211h), resulting on a bifactorial 2x5 for each cultivar.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiment was developed from adult apple orchards trees at Arroio do Padre (31°43’S and 52°41’W) and Capão do Leão (31°56’S and 52°29’W) located near Pelotas, Southern of Brazil, between June 2014 to September 2014.

Methodology: Biological tests were performed, named Tabuenca’s test (forcing conditions) and Single Bud Test (average time for budburst).

Results: During Tabuenca’s evaluation period, cv. ‘Mollie’s Delicious’ presented steady humidity until late winter, where humidity inside the bud showed a high increase, suggesting the end of endodormancy. Cultivar ‘Eva’, in the same test, showed steady humidity in the whole period, not indicating the end of endodormancy. In the Single Bud Test, cv. ‘Eva”, when subjected to forcing conditions, presented a proportional budding humidity curve with an atypical behavior and a high sprouting rate, suggesting that it has not entered into endodormancy stage.

Conclusion: The study suggests that Tabuenca’s test and average time for budburst methods were not efficient to measure the end of endodormancy in cv. ‘Eva’ under warm winter conditions during the El Niño years. Evidence is presented that chill insufficiency is already happening in several global locations and it may causes unexpected response in crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carcass, Organs and Economic Evaluation of Broiler Birds Fed Low-protein Diets Supplemented with the Most Limiting Essential Amino Acids in Ideal Protein Concept

F. A. S. Dairo, S. O. K. Fajemilehin, M. K. Adegun, D. B. Adelabu, A. K. Balogun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36325

This study evaluated the carcass, organs and economic parameters of broiler birds on the 57th day of production considered to be the economic market weight in which ideal protein concept was tested using the most limiting essential amino acids (EAAs), L-Lysine, DL-Methionine, L-Tryptophan and L-Threonine as supplements in low crude protein diets. Two sets of experimental diets were prepared for the two phases of broiler production at broiler starter (BS) and broiler finisher (BF) phases. At the BS phase (0-28 days), crude protein levels were varied from 23.0% in both the control diet (conventional BS diet with plant protein origin and fish meal) and diet 2 with the most limiting EAAs to diet 6 with the lowest crude protein of 11.0%. At the BF phase (29-57 days), six dietary treatments in which crude protein varied from 20.0% to 8.0% were used. The average live weight (LW) of 2490.3±25.2g obtained for birds on diet 3 (17.0% CP with EAAs supplementation) was the highest but similar (P>0.05) to the LW values of 2378.3 ± 24.6g, 2370.0 ± 47.9g and 2267.0 ± 53.0g obtained for birds on diets 4 (14.0% CP with EAAs supplementation), diet 2 (20.0% CP with EAAs supplementation) and the control diet 1 (20.0% CP conventional diet with some protein of animal origin), respectively. The average slaughtered weight of 2425.0±19.4g was also the highest value for birds on diet 3 (17.0% CP with EAAs supplementation). The average carcass weight value of 1798.3±21.8g was the highest and obtained for birds on diet 3 (17.0% CP with EAAs supplementation). There were similarities (P>0.05) among weights of most organs investigated. Data obtained were analysed statistically using Minitab (Version 16).

The total net return/bird (gross profit) was highest at N792.06 for birds on 20.0%/17.0% CP for broiler starter/finisher EAAs supplemented diets, respectively. Noteworthy that birds on diet 4 (17.0%/14.0% CP for broiler starter/finisher EAAs supplemented diets, respectively diets with EAA supplementation) had better net returns (gross profit) over the control diet formulated conventionally to contain 23.0%/20.0% CP for broiler starter/finisher diets at minimum Lys & Met supplementation.