Open Access Short Research Article

Alternative Substrates for Production of Cherry Tomato Seedlings

J. da Silva, J. dos S. Teixeira, M. T. da Silva, D. F. dos Santos, A. B. da Silva Júnior, A. P. V. de Carvalho, K. D. . da S Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36984

The cherry tomato crop has a high production cost, which can be reduced in part using alternative substrates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different alternative substrates for production of cherry tomato seedlings. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (T1: Bioplant® commercial substrate (control treatment); T2: Earthworm humus; T3: Soil; T4: Mixture of 50% soil + 50% earthworm humus; T5: Mixture of 75% soil + 25% earthworm humus) in four replicates. Seedlings were collected and evaluated at 28 days after sowing. There was significant effect of the substrates in relation to the traits plant height, leaf number, fresh matter of aerial part and dry matter of aerial part. Based on the dry matter of aerial part, the treatments T1, T2, T4, and T5 presented the best plant development due to the accumulation of photoassimilates. Most of the alternative substrates had similar behavior to the commercial substrate, being reflected in the plant vigor and yield. Finally, we concluded that there are alternative substrates capable of replacing the commercial substrate. The T5 treatment is the most indicated, since it did not differ from the commercial substrate in relation to the agronomic traits and presented a production cost of only 24% in relation to the commercial substrate cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salicylic Acid Maintains Quality of ‘Chimarrita’ and ‘Maciel’ Peaches Under Cold Storage

Suélen Braga de Andrade, Andressa Vighi Schiavon, Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim, Angelica Bender, Carolina Goulart, Vagner Brasil Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36650

Aims: The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of postharvest application of salicylic acid on Chimarrita and Maciel peach cultivars under cold storage.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications and 15 peaches per experimental unit, following a 4x3 factorial design for each cultivar, 4 treatments and 3 storage periods for both cultivars.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was executed at LabAgro/Fruticulture, Federal University of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, between November 2013 and February 2014.

Methodology: Postharvest application of salicylic acid was performed in both cultivars from the 2013/2014 crop by spraying the fruits with the solution (salicylic acid + distilled water + ethyl alcohol) and then letting them air-dry. The following treatments were used: T1- Peaches without the treatment solution (distilled water + ethyl alcohol (control); T2- Peaches treated with 0.5 mmol.L-1; T3- Peaches treated with 1.0 mmol.L-1; T4- Peaches treated with 1.5 mmol.L-1. The fruits submitted to the treatments were cold-stored at 1.0 ± 0.5°C and 85-90% RH, during 30 days. Weight loss (%), DA index, flesh firmness (N), soluble solids content (°Brix), rot incidence (%) and soluble pectin (g.100 g-1), were evaluated after a storage period of 10, 20 and 30 days plus two days for commercial simulation.

Results: Chimarrita cultivar: The predict value for weight loss at the stationary point was 3.27%, obtained with 1.33 mmol.L-1 of salicylic acid at day 12. Data regarding rot incidence showed to be adjusted to the regression model (F = 3.90; p = 0.007), with R2 of 0.68 e R2adj of 0.64. During the optimization process, the roots of the auxiliary equations were positive and negative in magnitude, indicating the saddle point as the stationary point. Under this condition, 35.4% of rotting was registered for 0.85 mmol.L-1 of salicylic acid, after 23 days. Maciel cultivar: The predict value for weight loss at this stationary point was 5.18%, reached with 0.56 mmol.L-1 of salicylic acid after 21.19 days. Flesh firmness findings adjusted to the regression model (F = 61.87; p< 0.0001), with R2 of 0.89 and R2adj of 0.87. During the optimization process, the roots of the auxiliary equations were positive and negative in magnitude, indicating the saddle point as stationary point, and the predict value was 35.7N for 0.75 mmol.L-1 of salicylic acid in 20 days.

Conclusion: Postharvest application of Salicylic acid at 1.0 mmol.L-1 was efficient in maintaining the quality of the Chimarrita cultivar at 20 plus two days for commercial simulation. As for the Maciel cultivar, a concentration of 0.5 mmol.L-1 of salicylic acid was more efficient for the same storage period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Germination Performance of Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata / macrocephala) Stylers Seeds Coated with Different Layers of Inert Material

Flávio Wirlan Andrade da Silva, Henrique Duarte Vieira, Danilo Força Baroni, Mariana Quintas Maitan, Amanda Justino Acha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36768

The coating is based on the deposition of inert material in successive layers that allow the modification of the physical characteristics of the seeds. However, this procedure can compromise the physiological characteristics. In this sense, Stylosanthes capitata / macrocephala cv. Campo Grande seeds were coated with sand of less than 0.25 mm with different layers with the following treatments: TR1- Seeds not covered and scarified (SNCS); TR2 - 6 layers (150 g); TR3 - 8 layers (200 g); TR4 - 10 layers (250 g); TR5 - 12 layers (300 g); TR6 - 14 layers (350 g) and TR7 - Seeds not covered and not scarred (SNC and NS), to study the effect of the coating with different layers on the physical and physiological characteristics of these seeds. Polyvinyl glue (PVA) was used as a cementitious material. The coating was done in a bench drawer. The tests were arranged in a germitest* roll paper. The experimental design was a completely randomized, in the laboratory and randomized blocks in a greenhouse with 6 treatments containing four repetitions of 50 seeds in four blocks. The 12-layer sand coating benefited the physical characteristics and did not compromise the physiological characteristics of the seeds and the development of the Estilosantes Campo Grande seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversification towards Vegetable Crops: A Good Option for Doubling the Farmer’s Income

Shruti Mohapatra, Upasana Mohapatra, Raj Kishore Mishra

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/37379

The present study was conducted to analyze the reason for which diversification towards vegetable production is taken as a pathway for increasing farmer’s income as well as employment. In this study the trends in area, production and productivity of the vegetables in India and Punjab along with their compound annual growth rate have been calculated. The study was undertaken on a macro framework based on data collected from secondary source like The results indicated that production of vegetables in total as well as the major cultivated vegetables i.e., potato, tomato and peas in Punjab and India had increased over the last 26 years due to increase in area and yield of the respective crops. Due to such notified increment, the vegetables can be taken as a very good option for the diversification from the culturally practiced crops and thereby will definitely promote the increase in income of farmers. But some factors like increasing rate of post harvest losses, poor conditions of contract farming and others have been forming limiting factors for the actual amount of arrival of vegetables to the consumer. Hence in order to continue the increase in availability of these vegetables there is a need to improvise several post harvest practices and motivate the contract farming to spread among vegetable cultivators so that a better platform could be placed for helping the farmers in increasing their income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hyperthermotherapy in the Rice Emasculation Process

Gabriel vAlmeida Aguiar, Eduardo Anibele Streck, Paulo Henrique Karling Facchinello, Carolina Goulart, Ariano Martins de Magalhães Junior, Luciano Carlos da Maia

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/37597

Aims: The objective of this work was to evaluate the emasculation by hyperthermotherapy method in irrigated rice genotypes, and to compare it with the emasculation by vacuum suction.

Study Design: The experimental design used to compare the two methods was completely randomized, with two treatments (emasculation by hyperthermotherapy and vacuum suction) and six replications. To analyze the emasculation by hyperthermotherapy, this design was also used with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the agricultural years of 2012/2013 (1st year) and 2013/2014 (2nd year), at the Terras Baixas Experimental Station of Embrapa Clima Temperado, in the municipality of Capão do Leão, RS (31º48’15.47” S and 52°24’47.11” W).

Methods: In the emasculation by hyperthermotherapy, 48 treatments were analyzed, consisting of the combination of 6 water temperatures (40°C, 42°C, 44°C, 46°C, 48°C and 50°C), 4 panicle immersion times (2.5 min, 5.0 min, 7.5 min and 10 min) and two cultivars (BRS Pampa and IAS 12-9 Formosa).

Results: The progressive increase in the temperature and time decreases the formation of grains until a certain condition in which the total sterilization of rice flowers occurs, being possible execute the emasculate before this occurs. This condition is 46°C for 2.5 minutes of panicle immersion. The genotype IAS 12-9 Formosa showed higher tolerance to high temperatures.

Conclusion: The condition that presented the best result to perform the hybridization was a temperature of 46°C for a panicle immersion time of 2.5 minutes for both cultivars. The hyperthermotherapy produces a smaller amount of grains, but presents a lower percentage of self-fertilization, thus, being more effective in the artificial rice hybridization process.