Tomato yield are related to genotype and commercial crop technology, which gave a significant range of possible results. The aims of this work were to study the effect of cytokinin sprays (BAP) in pre- and post-transplant as a stress-overcoming factor of the pre-transplant cell size for two tomato hybrids. The hypothesis tested were that the use of plug trays for tomato propagation establish a pre-transplant stress which was amplified during the crop cycle, while a pre- and post- transplant BAP spray let to overcoming the root restriction associated to plug cell size. Our results showed that tomato yield would be increased for determined (‘Argos’) or undetermined (‘Superman’) tomato hybrids using trays with 50 cells. A 100 mg L-1BAP foliar spray increase yield in plants from limited plug cell size as well, although the relative effects are related to when a BAP solution was applied (pre- or post-transplant stage) and the plug size used during the nursery cropping. The plug size-BAP relationship change relative yield in tomato through the relative fruit fresh weight in ‘Argos’ hybrid and both the relative fruit fresh weight and relative fruit number in ‘Superman’ hybrid. Plants from 50-cell tray-1 showed a higher plant size and a different crop architecture which let to explain, partially at least, the higher fresh-dry weight accumulation rate. The higher relative yield would be positively related to relative growth rate between sowing-transplant and a positive feedback in photo assimilates partitioning to plant shoots. Finally, our results showed the mechanisms involved in the plug cell size and BAP relationships, which would be use as a tool for improving fresh tomato yield.
Aims: To clarify the effect of nutrient concentration in growth medium on the relationship between host plants, Brassica campestris and Paraserianthes falcataria, and endophytic fungi (EPF).
Study Design: Inoculation of the two host plants growing in two media with different nutrient concentrations with 33 EPF.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, between 2016 and 2017.
Methodology:B. campestris and P. falcataria were grown on 1/100 and 1/10 strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media. Both plants were inoculated with 33 EPF isolated from forest soils in Indonesia. B. campestris and P. falcataria were harvested 28 and 37 days after transplanting, respectively, and shoot dry weight (SDW) and colonization rate were measured. Plant response (PR) to EPF inoculation was calculated on the basis of SDW, as follows: PR = [SDW (inoculated) – SDW (control)] / SDW (inoculated).
Results: SDW of B. campestris grown on 1/100 strength MS medium inoculated with 2, 23 or 8 EPF was higher than, the same as, or lower than that of control plant, respectively. SDW of B. campestris grown on 1/10 strength MS medium inoculated with 24 or 9 EPF was the same as or lower than that of control plant, respectively. SDW of P. falcataria grown on 1/100 strength MS medium inoculated with 1 or 32 EPF was higher than or the same as that of control plant, respectively. SDW of P. falcataria grown on 1/10 strength MS medium inoculated with 11 or 22 EPF was the same as or lower than that of control plant, respectively.
Conclusion: These results suggest that nutrient concentration in growth medium affected the relationship between plant and EPF.c
The aim of this study was to assess important characteristics of five androgenic genotypes through important fruit and production traits compared to the mother genotypes, Kurtovska Kapia and Feherozon. The experiment was conducted in complete randomized design in four replicates during four years experiment under glasshouse conditions. The assessment of the fruits and production traits of androgenic genotypes was performed according to instructions given in Descriptor for Capsicum spp. by IPGRI, AVRDC and CATIE. The fruits of androgenic genotypes KK1 and KK2 were characterized as long and triangular, large-size medium-fleshy pepper fruit. KK1 is evaluated as medium-yielding, KK2 as low-yielding genotype. Fruits of both genotypes are suitable for fresh consumption and processing. The fruits of F5 and F7 were evaluated as bell-shaped, large-size peppers with very thin pericarp, while F6 as blocky-elongated, large-size fruit. All three androgenic genotypes are estimated as medium-yielding.
Androgenic genotypes KK1 and KK2 differ from the control variety for four fruit traits. Androgenic genotypes F5, F6 and F7 differ from the control variety for six fruit traits. There was no variability of the productivity (yield) traits between studied androgenic genotypes and their parental genotypes. From the assessment of androgenic genotypes as compared to the control genotypes, Kurtovska Kapia and Feherozon, all five androgenic genotypes are recommended for future varietal development of sweet pepper varieties.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of garlic powder as a phyto-additive in broiler diets as a growth promoter with cholesterolemic properties and to also determine the economic implications when garlic powder is used in broiler diets. One hundred and ninety-two day old commercial broilers were used for this experiment and they were randomly allotted to four treatments and four replicates. Powdered garlic was incorporated into the bird’s diet at 0 gKg-1, 2 gKg-1, 3 gKg-1 and 4 gKg-1 additive levels. The performance parameters progressively improved by increasing dietary garlic powder from 2 gKg-1 up to 3 gKg-1 but reduced when garlic inclusion level was increased beyond 3 gKg-1. The highest average feed intake of 110.13±2.60 g/bird/day was obtained for birds on diet with 2 gKg-1 garlic supplementation. The highest average weight gain value of 48.73±2.64 g/bird/day was also obtained for birds on 2gKg-1 garlic supplemented diet. The optimum feed conversion ratio value of 2.27±0.14 was obtained at 2 gKg-1 garlic supplemented diet. The nitrogen retention values were similar (P>0.05) for all experimental birds. The live weight of 2524.70±59.9 g was the highest for birds on 2 gKg-1 garlic diet but similar (P>0.05) to the live weight value of 2468.30±26.0 g obtained for birds on 3 gKg-1 garlic supplemented diet. The total cholesterol was consistently higher (P<0.05) at 3.41±0.13 g/dl for birds on the control diet without any garlic powder. Other total cholesterol values of 2.43±0.04 g/dl, 2.68±0.16g/dl and 2.69±0.10g/dl obtained for birds on 2 gKg-1, 3 gKg-1 and 4 gKg-1 garlic supplemented diets, respectively were similar (P>0.05). The highest average body weight was attained on the 56 day for birds on the 2gKg-1 garlic supplemented diet and the cost benefit (feed/kg of live weight) was lowest for birds on 2 gKg-1 garlic supplemented diet at N243.94 and highest at N290.20 for birds on 4gKg-1 garlic supplemented diet. The best performance, carcass characteristics and the serum constituents of birds was attained by the group of birds fed with diet containing 2 gKg-1 garlic. The inclusion level of garlic at 2 gKg-1 is the most suitable as it is economically cheaper andhad more nutritional benefits for broiler production.
Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate water dynamics in different tissues of apple 'Eva' during dormancy stage under mild winter conditions of Pelotas, located in Southern Brazil.
Study Design: Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications, and the experimental unit was composed by a single plant, on 3x3x4 factorial arrangement, obtained from a combination of factors: three different tissues (bud, bark, and wood), three plant positions (apical, median and basal) and four collection dates each year (during the months of August and September).
Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out during two consecutive growing seasons: 2015/2016 and 2016/2017, in an experimental apple orchard located at Palma Agriculture Center, Federal University of Pelotas, Southern Brazil.
Methodology: The study was conducted in an experimental orchard using young apple plants cultivar 'Eva'. Phenological data was obtained from four plants, of apical, median, and basal portions. The phenological stages adopted were 'C' (green tip), 'D' (half-inch green leafless), and 'F' (beginning of flowering). In order to determine water dynamics during dormancy stage and their fresh and dry weight, apple branches were collected and separated into three different tissues (bud, bark and wood) to evaluate water content.
Results: During the first growing season, there was a higher percentage of bud bursting in apical and median plant portion, while in the second season it was larger in middle and basal portion. Bark showed greater water content in most evaluations, while bud had increased water content in middle portion at the end of the dormancy stage, coinciding with the larger bud bursting.
Conclusion: Water content can be an indicator of overcoming endodormancy stage and bud bursting potential.