Open Access Original Research Article

Modulation of Cholesterol in Laying Chickens Fed Sun-Dried Garlic Powder

Funmilayo Grace Adebiyi, Anthony Durojaiye Ologhobo, Isaac Oluseun Adejumo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38168

Poultry eggs are excellent source of all essential nutrient for persons of all ages but they have been reported to contain high level of cholesterol. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of graded levels of sun-dried garlic powder on performance, serum lipids and egg yolk cholesterol of Isa Brown laying hens. Fresh garlic bulbs were purchased from a commercial market in the northern part of Nigeria. The fresh garlic paste was subsequently thinly spread on clean a mat in direct sunlight for two days during harmattan period. The sun-dried garlic was added as an additive to the basal diet at 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% inclu­sion level. Fifty 18 weeks-old Isa Brown chickens were randomly distributed to the 5 dietary treatments. There were no significant differences observed for feed efficiency, egg weight and egg mass among the treatments. The highest feed intake was observed by chickens fed 1% garlic-based diet when compared with the control group, while 3% and 4% garlic-based diets obtained lower feed intake than the control. Birds on 1% and 2% garlic inclusion had the best hen day production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Seed Vigour Tests for Efficiently Determining the Physiological Potential of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.)

H. S. Sossou, J. M. Asomaning, E. A. Gaveh, J. Sarkodie Addo, J. J. Twintoh, F. A. K. Sodedji

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International,
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38475

Seed vigour tests were conducted to identify differences in physiological potential among seed lots of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.) with the potential to perform well after sowing and/or during storage. The present study aimed at investigating rapid vigour testing methods for estimating the relative physiological potential of T. tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.) to provide relevant information to guide its domestication and ex-situ conservation. Eight (8) seed lots of T. tetraptera were subjected to the accelerated ageing and the electrical conductivity tests to determine their physiological potential. For the accelerated ageing tests, the traditional accelerated ageing (TAA) and the salt-saturated accelerated ageing (SSAA) tests were performed. In the TAA tests, seed lots were exposed to 100% RH at 38 and 41°C for 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. In the SSAA tests, seed lots were exposed to saturated NaCl solution with RH of 76% at temperatures and durations similar to the TAA tests. For the electrical conductivity tests, leachates conductivity of the 8 seed lots, were measured after 20 seeds of each lot had been placed in beakers and soaked in 50 ml of de-ionized water for 1,2,3,4,5,6, and 24 h at room temperature (24-28°C). Seed moisture content was determined and seed germination tests of seed lots were conducted before and after the accelerated ageing tests. Seedling root, shoot and total length as well as seedling dry weights were also recorded after accelerated ageing and germination of the seeds. The experimental design was 8 x 7 factorial (lots x soaking period) for the conductivity test and 8 x 2 x 3 factorial (lots x temperature x exposure time) for the accelerated ageing tests, in a completely randomized design. Results showed that seed emergence and seedling length were effective to distinguish the physiological quality of T. tetraptera seeds while seedling dry weights were not. Accelerated ageing test influenced the percentage of germination, but showed low sensitivity in lots differentiation. For the electrical conductivity test, 24 h was the most promising soaking period for effective stratification in determining the physiological quality of T. tetrapteraseed lots and was significantly correlated with seed emergence (-0.76, p < 0.01) and seedling length (r = -0.72, p < 0.01). Electrical conductivity test may therefore be a more feasible option for vigour testing of T. tetraptera seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability of Yam-Maize-Soybean Enterprise among Resource Poor Farmers Using Herbicide for Weed Control in the Northern Guinea Savanna

Udensi Ekea Udensi, Adanna - Henri Ukoha, Charles Iyangbe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/37631

This study examined the profitability of herbicide weed control in yam-maize-soybean enterprise, factors influencing it, as well as the problems encountered by the farmers using this weed control measures. The study was conducted in Bwari Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria, between August, 2015 and January, 2016. Data were collected from 60 randomly selected farmers using a structured questionnaire, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, net income, gross margin model and multiple regressions. Result shows that the enterprise was dominated by male farmers (97%) with 88% of them married and had an average household size of 7 persons. The respondents were educated with average farm size of 4 ha. The gross revenue was ₦1,062,695.08 per hectare, with net income of ₦280,118.615 and the return per naira was 1.36, implying that for every naira spent in the enterprise the farmer expects a return of ₦1.36. The gross margin ratio estimate was 1.69, and this result implied that for every ₦1 realized from the sales of yam, maize and soybean the farmer had ₦1.69 kobo left over to cover basic variable costs as well as profit. Lack of credit facilities, high cost of labour, environmental effects and high cost of herbicide were the major problems encountered by the farmers. Level of education, farm size, household size, farming experience, use of herbicide was all positively related to profit and significant at 5% probability level. Polices that would favour herbicide subsides and credit facilities for farmers in this agro-ecology zone will be a strong incentive for increased productivity and profitability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioconversion of Rice Straw as a Ruminant Feed Using Three Strains of White Rot Fungi

A. A. Wuanor, J. A. Ayoade

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/36159

Aims: To determine nutritive value of rice straw samples biodegraded by different fungal strains.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Fungal inoculation of rice straw samples was carried out at the Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (FIIRO) Nigeria, for 21 days; proximate and fibre fractions analysis was done at the laboratory of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria, while in vitro gas production was carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Animal Science, University of Benin, Nigeria.

Methodology: Samples of untreated rice straw (UTRS) were biodegraded for 21 days using three strains of edible mushroom Pleurotus tuberregium (PTTRS), Pleurotus pulmonarius (PPTRS) and Pleurotus ostreatus(POTRS). The substrates were analyzed for changes in the proximate composition and crude fibre fractions. In vitro Gas Production (IVGP) was used to predict the Metabolizable Energy (ME), Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD), Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA), methane production (CH4), gas production at zero hour (a), total gas production (b), rate of fermentation (c) and incubation time (t).

Results: Proximate composition showed crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash and nitrogen free extracts (NFE) values to be 8.32,15.32, 5.95 and 6.44%; 2.91, 3.93, 3.43 and 1.90%; 5.88, 12.38, 7.26 and 13.76% and 48.75, 43.65, 46.51 and 27.40% for UTRS, PTTRS, PPTRS and POTRS respectively. Crude fibre fractions for neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), hemicellulose (HEM) and cellulose (CL) were 72.06, 77.43, 73.71 and 76.63%; 51.31, 6.14, 12.44 and 10.87%, 11.39, 1.43, 1.23 and 1.37%; 20.75, 71.29, 61.27 and 65.77% and 39.92, 4.71, 11.22 and 9.49% for UTRS, PTTRS, PPTRS and POTRS respectively. Estimates of ME, OMD, SCFA and CH4 were 4.23, 7.29, 7.32 and 9.10 MJ/kg DM; 31.34, 52.94, 45.39 and 57.83%; 0.18, 0.56, 0.56 and 0.78 umol/200 mg DM and 13.50, 9.33, 10.33 and 10.67 ml for UTRS, PTTRS, PPTRS and POTRS respectively. IVGP characteristics for a, a+b, b, c and t were 1.25, 2.38, 1.13 and 1.57; 9.25, 23.88, 24.13 and 24.07; 8.00, 21.50, 23.00 and 22.50; 0.11, 0.41, 0.35 and 0.35 and 21.00, 8.00, 9.00 and 9.00 hours for UTRS, PTTRS, PPTRS and POTRS respectively

Conclusion: Based on the result, Pleurotus tuberregium degraded rice straw (PTTRS) was adjudged superior to the others due to the higher crude protein, ether extract, potentially degradable fractions, high gas production per unit time and lower methane production.

Open Access Review Article

Botany and Breeding of Tomato to Obtain Genotypes Resistant to Bacterial Wilt

Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Jackson da Silva, Ana Maria Maciel dos Santos, José Luiz Sandes deCarvalho Filho, Paulo Ricardo dos Santos, Michelangelo de Oliveira Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2017/38489

Bacterial wilt is a disease that is of global importance because it is difficult to control and often compromises the whole crop. The use of resistant varieties is the main form of control of this disease. The objective of this work was to carry out a literature review with the main factors related to the botany and breeding of tomato to obtain genotypes resistant to bacterial wilt. It was found different information related to the genetic control of tomato resistance in relation to the number of genes and their interaction due to the high genetic diversity within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex, which is the cause of bacterial wilt. The high host-pathogen interaction reflects on different breeding strategies depending on the environment and the source of resistance used.